This compact disk (CD) is one of 20 which comprise mosaics of the Clementine I
high resolution (HiRes) camera images of the moon.  These mosaics were produced
through semi-automated registration and calibration against the recently released
geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap
Mosaic.  The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750
nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations from the HiRes
imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft.  The images were spatially
warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel.
To avoid the necessity of iterative reprojection, which was beyond the scope
of the present effort, only images with emission angles less than approximately
5 degrees were used. Similarly, images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which
tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the
resulting image population were offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km
(0.4 deg).

The geometric control was provided by the 100 m/pixel U.  S. Geological Survey
(USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible
Clementine imaging system.  Calibration was achieved by removing the image
nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier.  Also provided
are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the
corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately
transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units.

The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of
latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames.  Images from a
given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude.

This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic.  These
files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic
Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('' and '')
that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files.  For more
information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to
the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document.

The Clementine HiRes Mosaic was compiled for the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA) by Malin Space Science Systems personnel under the
direction of Dr. Michael C. Malin, principal Investigator.  Jeff Warren and
Rick Adair comprised the technical group responsible for its compilation.

Much of the background text in this document draws heavily on McEwen et al.

The Clementine Mission [Nozette et al., 1994] was a technology demonstration
jointly sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).  Clementine was launched
on 1994-01-25 aboard a Titan IIG rocket from Vandenburg Air Force Base.  The
mission included two months of systematic lunar mapping (1994-02-26 through
1994-04-21), which was to have been followed by a flyby of the near-Earth
asteroid Geographos (1994-08-31).  However, an onboard software error combined
with improbable hardware conditions on 1994-05-07 led to accidental spin-up of
the spacecraft and loss of attitude control gas.  This precluded the flyby of

Clementine's primary objective was the qualification of light weight imaging
sensors and component technologies for the next generation of Department of
Defense spacecraft.  A second objective was the return of data about the Moon
and Geographos to the international civilian scientific community.  For more
information on the Clementine Mission refer to the '' file located
in the 'catalog' directory.

The HiRes mosaic was created using the Clementine EDR Image Archive [Eliason,
et al., 1995] produced by the Clementine mission.  The EDR (Engineering Data
Record) data are raw images.  The archive also includes tabulations of the
unprocessed and uncorrected data properties.  The Clementine EDR Image Archive
contains more than 1.9 million images acquired during active mission
operations.  For information on how to obtain this archive contact the PDS
Imaging Node or visit their world wide web site at the URL:

The HiRes camera combined a lightweight beryllium telescope with an image
intensifier-coupled frame transfer CCD imager.  Image shuttering was
accomplished through voltage gating of the image intensifier.  Maximum
integration time was 733 milliseconds in 10.67 microsecond increments.  The
spectral response was limited in the system by the S-2 photocathode between
0.4 and 0.8 microns.  Five spectral bands were available using a filter wheel
that was controlled through the serial-addressable synchronous interface
(SASI).  A sixth filter position was allocated to an opaque filter
for the imager intensifier's protection.  Additional information on the HiRes
camera is in the '' file in the 'catalog' directory. 

The post-FPA electronic circuitry was identical to that used in the UV/Vis
camera: three gains states were allowed, followed by 5 bits of offset that
span 248 counts in the analog regime to augment the basic 8-bit A/D
conversion.  Images of the Moon's day side used relatively low gain settings
and intensifier gate times on the order of 1 ms.  Lifetime concerns about the
photocathode and microchannel plates in the intensifier unit drove operations
settings to low exposures.  This resulted in photon shot noise contributing
significantly to the overall noise in the HiRes sensor.  Further, the image
intensifier imposed a non-uniform, but predictable, artifact within the

The Clementine spacecraft maintained a polar orbit during the systematic
mapping of the surface of the Moon.  Mapping of virtually 100% of the lunar
surface was accomplished in two lunar days (two Earth months).  In order to
obtain full coverage during these two months, the required image overlap for
the UV/Vis and NIR cameras was ~15% in the down-track and ~10% in the
cross-track directions.  This required an orbit inclination of 90 degrees
plus-or- minus 1 degree with reference to the lunar equator, and that the
periselene of the orbit be maintained at an altitude of 425 plus-or-minus 25
km.  To provide the necessary cross-track separation for the alternating
imaging strips to cover the entire surface of the moon, the orbital period was
approximately 5 hours, during which the moon rotated approximately 2.7 degrees
beneath the spacecraft.  Images were generally taken and recorded only in the
region of periselene, leaving sufficient time to replay the data to Earth.

The best data for lunar mineral mapping is obtained if the solar phase angle
is less than 30 degrees.  The solar phase angle is defined as the angle
between the vector to the Sun and the vector to the spacecraft from a point on
the Moon's surface.  To maximize the time period in which the solar phase
angle is less than 30 degrees, the plane of the orbit should contain the
Moon-Sun line half way through the two-month lunar mapping period.  Therefore,
insertion into orbit was selected so that, as the Moon-Sun line
changed with Earth's motion about the Sun, the Moon-Sun line was initially
close on the orbital plane, and then in the orbital plane half-way through
the mapping mission.  The angle between the Moon-Sun line and the orbital
plane was close (less than 5 degrees) for approximately five weeks before
becoming zero.  The table shown below contains a list of Clementine's orbital
parameters.  For more information on the Lunar orbit refer to the
'' file located in the 'catalog' directory.

                     Clementine Orbital Parameters
      Orbital Period:             4.970 hr < P < 5.003 hr
      Altitude of Periselene:   401 km < radius < 451 km
      Eccentricity:               0.35821 < e < 0.37567
      Right Ascension:           -3 deg < Omega < +3 deg (referred J2000)
      Inclination:               89 deg < i < 91 deg
      Argument of Periselene:   -28.4 deg < w < -27.9 deg (1st month)
                                 29.6 deg < w <  29.2 deg (2nd month)

The geometric placement of the HiRes mosaics is based primarily on
registration with the Clementine Basemap Mosaic, which has accuracies
approaching the UV/Vis scale.  Thus, an overview of Basemap Mosaic is

The UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic
The goal of the  UV/Vis basemap was for 95% of the Moon (excluding the oblique
observation gap fills) to have better than 0.5 km/pixel absolute positional
accuracy and to adjust the camera angles so that all frames match neighboring
frames to within an accuracy of 2 pixels.

Approximately 265,000 match points were collected at the USGS from ~43,000
UV/Vis images, providing global coverage.  About 80% of these points were
collected via autonomous procedures, whereas 20% required the more time
consuming but highly accurate manual pattern-recognition.  Oblique gap-fill
images were the most difficult to match, and required substantial human
intervention.  Matching the polar regions was time-consuming because each
frame overlapped many other frames.  Most match points were found to a
precision of 0.2 pixels.

The USGS match points were sent to RAND Corporation for analytical
triangulations.  Using these match points, control points from the Apollo
region, and the latest NAIF/SPICE information, RAND determined improved camera
orientation angles for the global set of UV/Vis images.  A spherical Moon of
constant radius (1737.4 kilometers) was assumed, which was a significant
source of error near the oblique gap fills.  The analytical triangulation is a
least-squares formulation designed to adjust the latitude and longitude of the
control points and the camera orientation angles to best fit the match points.
The final (global) analytical triangulation required solving ~660,000 normal
equations.  The mean error is less than 1 pixel.  This is by far the largest
analytical triangulation ever applied to a planetary body other than Earth.
The results fully define the planimetric geometry of the basemap, to which
future systematic products, including the HiRes mosaic, should be tied.

The HiRes Mosaic

Accurate placement of the map-projected HiRes images was accomplished by
combining registration to the UV/Vis basemap at the basemap's resolution (100
m/pixel) with registration of overlapping HiRes pairs at five times this
resolution (20 m/pixel).  The registrations were facilitated with automated
image correlation.  These registrations were combined in a Least Absolute
Deviation fit (Barrodale and Roberts, 1980) constrained to stray no further
than some small amount from the basemap-scale registration.  Use of the least
absolute deviation gives outliers less importance than does a least squares
fit.  Further manual placement of 1-5 percent of the images was required;
these were due either to poor initial placement, particularly when the scene
was featureless and provided few or no overlapping features with the UV/Vis
basemap, or to mismatches of scene, resolution or illumination across seams in
the UV/Vis mosaic.  Some misregistration of adjacent HiRes images remains in
the final mosaic because the paramount goal was registration with the
underlying UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic.

To date, absolute photometric calibration of the HiRes image data remains
elusive.  This seems particularly problematic for the bulk of HiRes images,
which were noisy due to the low gain setting intended to extend the life of
the imaging system.  For this product, piece-wise intensity matching of the
HiRes mosaics to the UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic was adopted as an approximate
radiometric calibration.  The further decision was made to use 750 nm ("D")
filter HiRes images in order to best match the UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic, which
dominantly comprises 750 nm ("B") filter images.  A more detailed description
of the UV/Vis basemap photometric calibration may be found on the UV/Vis
basemap volumes CL_30XX.

Since the photometric level of the underlying UV/Vis basemap was observed to
be approximately constant over the 1.75-degrees latitude bins of each HiRes
mosaic tile, a single linear scaling of the HiRes tiles provides an approximate
photometric calibration to an accuracy commensurate with the quality of the
HiRes images.  Thus, following mosaicking, the DN values of reduced-resolution
1.75-degree HiRes mosaic tiles were least-squares fit to the corresponding
UV/Vis basemap values to estimate this linear scaling. The result is a scale
and offset applied to the 8-bit HiRes DN in exactly the same manner as the
UV/Vis scale and offset to provide approximate HiRes fractional reflectances.
In each tile header, then, the OFFSET and SCALING_FACTOR entries define HiRes 
fractional reflectances for that tile and that tile only:

        where: DN = 8-bit pixel value of HiRes mosaic image array.
               SCALING_FACTOR units are fractional reflectance per DN
               OFFSET units are fractional reflectance 

The calibration in every case included correction for the non-uniformity of
the raw HiRes images due to the light intensifier (Robinson, personal
communication, 1997).

Image processing tools developed at Malin Space Science Systems were used for
image map projection, registration, tone matching and mosaicking.  MapMaker was
used to generate context images from the UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic.

Processing proceeded on an orbit and latitude "bin" basis, reflecting the
organization of the Clementine EDR CDs.  A latitude bin consists of all images
of a given orbit deemed to fall within a 10 degree latitude range based on
SPICE information.  The latitude ranges are defined to fall on 10-degree
boundaries from -90 to +90.  Map projection of images from a given orbit used
the same central longitude, taken to be the orbit's longitude at the lunar

The HiRes mosaic was processed in 5 steps:

1. image calibration, map project, and basemap generation

2. lores registration

3. HiRes registration

4. constrained registration

5. mosaic and estimate photometric calibration

Step 1
Following calibration for image non-uniformity, each image is warped with the
sinusoidal equal-area projection [Snyder, 1982], using the SPICE information in
the EDR's PDS header.  Only "D" filter (750 nm) images are considered.  Images
with no apparent content, indicated by MINIMUM = MAXIMUM (DN) header entries,
or low intensifier gains (< 10) are rejected. Also rejected are images with
excessive emission angles.

The HiRes SPICE information is erroneous to some degree, necessitating further
effort to register them with the UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic.  Both high resolution
(20 m/pixel) and low-resolution (100 m/pixel) versions are generated.  For this
purpose, an appropriate UV/Vis context is generated, reprojecting as needed to
match the central longitude of a given orbit's images.

Step 2
Step 2 registers the HiRes images at UV/Vis basemap resolution.  The HiRes
images generally have some small systematic deviation away from a
geometrically controlled position.  This deviation is of order 10-200 pixels
at 100 m/pixel, tending to be largest near the poles.  Correlation of the
HiRes images to the UV/Vis basemap permits estimation of HiRes image offsets
relative to the UV/Vis basemap.  Provisional image placements that failed the
correlation effort are estimated from neighboring "good" images that did not
fail.  Very rarely, "holes" in the underlying basemap, due to absence of valid
UV/Vis data, result in stretches of HiRes data which lack geometric constraint
to the basemap.

Step 3
Overlapping "good" images are correlated against each other to provide a
"full-resolution" placement constraint.

Step 4
The results of the reduced and full resolution registrations are combined to
define a constrained, least absolute-deviation problem for the image placement.
Like the more familiar least-squares fit procedure, this seeks to minimize
deviation away from specified targets, in this case the nominal absolute and
relative HiRes image placements.  However, least-squares tends to weight
outlying locations in a manner considered undesirable.

An additional constraint is imposed by not allowing the any placement solution
to stray further than 3 UV/Vis-resolution pixels from the nominal location.
Occasionally, this constraint must be relaxed to accommodate relatively severe
UV/Vis mosaic seam offsets.

Step 5
Using the estimated placements, the full resolution HiRes images are
provisionally mosaicked, laying frames down from south to north.  This
provisional mosaic is manually examined to detect misplaced and invalid (no
significant content) images, due in some cases to an image taken while gain
states were transitioning to different values.  Misplaced images are manually
mosaicked, and invalid images flagged for exclusion.

Because the UV/Vis Basemap Mosaic is the de facto control network for lunar
cartography, HiRes images are permitted to mismatch each other when forced
by UV/Vis scene content which is mismatched across mosaic seams.

Following the manual quality review, a final mosaic is produced as tiles that
span 2 degrees of latitude.  Low resolution versions with UV/Vis context are
also generated to estimate an approximate photometric calibration.  This
calibration is computed as the least-squares linear fit of the 1.75-degree tile's
DN values to those of the underlying UV/Vis basemap, an 8-bit version generated
from the 16-bit versions provided on CD.  This chain of linear scalings is
then combined to provide a nominal scaling of the tile DNs to physical
photometric (fractional reflectance) values.

The files on CD volume set are organized starting at the root or
'parent' directory.  Below the parent directory is a directory tree
containing data, documentation, and index files.  In the table below
directory names are indicated by brackets (<...>), upper-case
letters indicate an actual directory or file name, and lower-case
letters indicate the general form of a set of directory or file


The files on this CD are organized starting at the root or 'parent' directory.
Below the parent directory is a directory tree containing data, documentation,
and index files.  In the table below directory names are indicated by brackets
(<...>), upper-case letters indicate an actual directory or file name, and
lower-case letters indicate the general form of a set of directory or file

-------------------     ------------------------------------------

|-INDEX.HTM             Starting point for web-browsing CD contents.
|-AAREADME.TXT          The file you are reading (ASCII Text).
|-ERRATA.TXT            Description of known anomalies and errors
|                       present on the volume set(optional file).
|-VOLDESC.CAT           A description of the contents of this
|                       CD volume in a format readable by
|                       both humans and computers.
|-<CATALOG>             Catalog Directory
|  |
|  |-CATINFO.TXT        Describes Contents of the Catalog directory
|  |
|  |-DATASET.CAT        Clementine HiRes Mosaic description.
|  |
|  |-DSMAP.CAT          Map Projection description.
|  |
|  |-INSTHOST.CAT       Clementine Spacecraft description.
|  |
|  |-MISSION.CAT        Clementine Mission description.
|  |
|  |-PERSON.CAT         Contributors to Clementine HiRes mosaic.
|  |
|  |-REFS.CAT           References for Clementine HiRes mosaic.
|  |
|  |-HRESINST.CAT       HiRes Camera description.
|-<DOCUMENT>            Documentation Directory.  The files in this
|  |                    directory provide detailed information
|  |                    regarding the Clementine HiRes Mosaic.
|  |
|  |-DOCINFO.TXT        Description of files in the DOCUMENT
|  |                    directory.
|  |
|  |-VOLINFO.TXT        Documentation regarding the
|  |                    contents of this CD Volume Set.
|  |
|  |-VOLINFO.HTM        Documentation regarding the
|  |                    contents of this CD Volume Set in HTML format.
|  |
|  |-VOLINFO.LBL        PDS Label file describing the VOLINFO
|  |                    documents.
|-<INDEX>               Directory for the image index files.
|  |
|  |-INDXINFO.TXT       Description of files in <INDEX> directory.
|  |
|  |-IMGINDX.TAB        Image Index table.
|  |
|  |-IMGINDX.LBL        PDS label for IMGINDX.TAB.
|  |
|  |-SRCINDX.TAB        Table of source images used in the
|  |                    production of the Clementine HiRes mosaic.
|  |
|  |-SRCINDX.LBL        PDS Label for SRCINDX.TAB
|-<tile directory>      Data directory names indicating center longitude of each orbit
|  |                    number encoded as floor(longitude*10), and has form HXXXmmmm, 
|  |                    where mmmm is defined below.
|  |
|  |-<Hnnemmmm.IMG>     Strip mosaic data product in PDS format.  Filename
|  |                    is coded as follows:
|  |
|  |                      nn = two digit center latitude (i.e. INT(lat)).
|  |                       e = N (North Latitude)
|  |                           S (South Latitude)
|  |                    mmmm = projection center longitude * 10
|  |
|  |-<BROWSE>           Subdirectory containing browse images for HTML interface.
|  |  |
|  |  |-<Hnnemmmm.JPG>  Browse image in JPEG format with UV/Vis context for
|  |  |                 corresponding PDS image.
|  |  |
|  |  |-<Hnnemmmm.HTM>  Browse HTML file for for corresponding PDS image.

The image files are stored in a PDS compliant format.  An image file contains
an label area (header) at the beginning of the file followed by the image
data.  The number of bytes of the label area is a multiple of the number of
bytes that make up an image line (number of samples * 1 bytes/pixel).  The
image label area contains ASCII text data that contains information about the
image file (see Image Labels section below).  The label area can be viewed
with a simple ASCII editor on most computer systems.

Pixel Representation
The Clementine HiRes mosaic is stored as image files with 8-bit unsigned
integer pixels.

Image Labels
The label area of a image file contains descriptive information about the
image.  The label consists of keyword statements that conform to version 3 of
the Object Description Language (ODL) developed by NASA's PDS project.  There
are three types of ODL statements within a label: structural statements,
keyword assignment statements, and pointer statements.

Structural statements provide a shell around keyword assignment statements to
delineate which data object the assignment statements are describing.  The
structural statements are:

         1) OBJECT = object_name
         2) END_OBJECT
         3) END

The OBJECT statement begins the description of a particular data object and
the END_OBJECT statement signals the end of the object's description.  All
keyword assignment statements between an OBJECT and its corresponding
END_OBJECT statement describe the particular object named in the OBJECT
statement.  The END statement terminates a label.  A keyword assignment
statement contains the name of an attribute and the value of that attribute.
Keyword assignment statements are described in more detail in Appendix B of
this document.  These statements have the following format:

         name = value

Values of keyword assignment statements can be numeric values, literals, and
text strings.

Pointer statements are a special class of keyword assignment statements.  These
pointers are expressed in the ODL using the following notation:

         ^object_name = location

If the object is in the same file as the label, the location of the object is
given as an integer representing the starting record number of the object,
measured from the beginning of the file.  The first label record in a file is
record 1.  Pointers are useful for describing the location of individual
components of a data object.  Pointer statements are also used for pointing to
data or label information stored in separate files.  An example of a detached
label (i.e., label information stored in a separate file) is shown below: By
convention, detached labels are found in the LABEL directory.

         ^STRUCTURE = 'logical_file_name'

The value of 'logical_file_name' is the name of the detached label file
containing the description.

The keyword statements in the label are packed into the fixed-length records
that make up the keyword label area.  Each keyword statement is terminated by a
carriage-return and line-feed character sequence.  An example of a Clementine
HiRes strip mosaic image label is shown below.  Descriptions of the keywords
used in the mosaic label are found in Appendix A.

          Example PDS Label for Clementine HiRes Strip Mosaic

PDS_VERSION_ID                 = PDS3
RECORD_TYPE                    = FIXED_LENGTH
RECORD_BYTES                   = 158   
FILE_RECORDS                   = 2677  
LABEL_RECORDS                  = 24    
^IMAGE                         = 25    
/*          IMAGE DESCRIPTION */
DATA_SET_ID                    = "CLEM1-L-H-5-DIM-HIRES-V1.0"
PRODUCT_ID                     = "H49S0378"          
PRODUCT_TYPE                   = MDIM
INSTRUMENT_ID                  = "HIRES"
TARGET_NAME                    = "MOON"
FILTER_NAME                    = "D"
BANDWIDTH                      = 50.0000
START_TIME                     = "N/A"
STOP_TIME                      = "N/A"
PRODUCT_CREATION_TIME          = 1998-09-02T00:00:00           
NOTE                           = "LUNAR HIRES MOSAIC"
OBJECT                         = IMAGE
BANDS                        = 1
BAND_NAME                    = "N/A"
LINES                        = 2653  
LINE_SAMPLES                 = 158   
SAMPLE_BITS                  = 8
SAMPLE_BIT_MASK              = 2#11111111#
OFFSET                       = 1.78846745E-01      
SCALING_FACTOR               = 5.01661140E-04      
VALID_MINIMUM                = 1
NULL                         = 0
MINIMUM                      = 0  
MAXIMUM                      = 125
CHECKSUM                     = 17038302    
END_OBJECT                     = IMAGE
OBJECT                         = IMAGE_MAP_PROJECTION
MAP_RESOLUTION               = 1516.1666667        
MAP_SCALE                    = 0.0200000           
MAXIMUM_LATITUDE             = -49.0002199         
MINIMUM_LATITUDE             = -50.7493679         
EASTERNMOST_LONGITUDE        = 37.1729801          
WESTERNMOST_LONGITUDE        = 37.0093190          
LINE_PROJECTION_OFFSET       = -74290.5000000      
SAMPLE_PROJECTION_OFFSET     = 760.5000000         
A_AXIS_RADIUS                = 1737.4000000        
B_AXIS_RADIUS                = 1737.4000000        
C_AXIS_RADIUS                = 1737.4000000        
CENTER_LATITUDE              = 0.0
CENTER_LONGITUDE             = 37.8000000          
LINE_FIRST_PIXEL             = 1
SAMPLE_FIRST_PIXEL           = 1
LINE_LAST_PIXEL              = 2653  
SAMPLE_LAST_PIXEL            = 158   

Each CD volume in the Clementine HiRes mosaic contains an image index file
('') with catalog information about the entire basemap.  The image
index file and it's associated PDS label file ('imgindx.lbl') are located in
the 'index' directory.  The catalog information in the index table includes
the file names, CD volumes, and mapping parameter information.  An additional
source file index table ('' and corresponding PDS label
'srcindx.lbl')contains information about the EDR image collection used to
assemble the basemap.  This file contains an entry for each EDR image that was
used in the mosaic.  For more information on the contents of the index files
refer to the label files.

Acton, C.H., Ancillary Data Services of NASA's Navigation and
Ancillary Information Facility: Planetary and Space Sciences, Vol.
44, No. 1, pp. 65-70, 1996.

Barrodale, I. and Roberts, F.D.K., Algorithm 552: Solution of the 
Constrained L1 Linear Approximation Problem, ACM TOMS 6 (2), 231-235, 

Batson, R.M., Digital Cartography of the Planets: New Methods, its
status, and its Future: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote
Sensing, Vol. 53, No. 9, p. 1211-1281.

Batson, R.M., 1990, Cartography: in Greeley, Ronald, and Batson,
eds. Planetary Mapping: New York, Cambridge University Press, pp.

Eliason, E.M., E.R. Malaret, and G. Woodward, Clementine Mission,
The Archive of Image Data Products and Data Processing Capabilities
(Abstract): Proceedings of the 26-th Lunar and Planetary
Conference, pp. 369-370, 1995.

McEwen, A., E.M.Eliason, C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, M.  Robinson 
(1997). The Clementine Basemap Mosaic.  volinfo.txt, 

JPL, PDS Standards Reference: JPL Document D-7669, JPL , Pasadena,
California, 1992.

Kordas, J.R., I.T. Lewis, R.E. Priest, W.T. White, D.P. Nielsen, H.
Park, B.A. Wilson, M.J. Shannon, A.G. Ledebuhr, and L.D. Pleasance,
UV/visible Camera for the Clementine Mission: Proceedings of the
Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 2478,
pp. 175-186, 1995.

Nozette, S., P. Rustan, L.P. Pleasance, D.M. Horan, P. Regeon, E.M.
Shoemaker, P.D. Spudis, C.H. Acton, D.N. Baker, J.E. Blamont, B.J.
Buratti, M.P. Corson, M.E. Davies, T.C. Duxbury, E.M. Eliason, B.M.
Jakosky, J.F. Kordas, I.T. Lewis, C.L. Lichtenberg, P.G. Lucey, E.
Malaret, M.A. Massie, J.H. Resnick, C.J. Rollins, H.S. Park, A.S.
McEwen, R.E. Priest, C.M. Pieters, R.A. Reisse, M.S. Robinson, D.E.
Smith, T.C. Sorenson, R.W. Vorder Breugge, and M.T. Zuber; The
Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview: Science, 266,
1835-1839, 1994.

Snyder, J.P, Map Projections Used by the U.S. Geological Survey:
Geological Survey Bulletin 1532, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington D.C., 313 pp., 1982.


This section defines the keywords used in the image label area of 
the Clementine basemap mosaic.

PDS_VERSION_ID                 = PDS3
This dataset conforms to version 3 of the PDS standards.

RECORD_TYPE                    = FIXED_LENGTH
This keyword defines the record structure of the file as fixed-
length record files.

RECORD_BYTES                   = xxxx
Record length in bytes for fixed-length records (number of samples)

FILE_RECORDS                   = xxxx
Total number of fixed-length records contained in the file

LABEL_RECORDS                  = x
Number of fixed-length label records in the file

Data are organized as BINARY values

^IMAGE                         = x
Pointer to the first record that contains image data. (The first 
record in the file is designated as record 1.)

DATA_SET_ID                    = "CLH-002"
The PDS defined data set identifier for the Clementine HiRes 

PRODUCT_ID                     = "xxxxx"
Unique product identifier for this image file. This value is the 
same as the file name. (Format described in the "FILES, DIRECTORIES, AND DISK
CONTENTS" section above.)

Identifies the producer organization of this data product.

PRODUCT_TYPE                   = MDIM
This keyword identifies the image product as a Mosaicked Digital 
Image Model (MDIM).

The keyword identifies the product name of the mission. (This is 
the official name of the Clementine Mission.)

Name of the spacecraft that acquired the data.

Name of the instrument that acquired the image data.

INSTRUMENT_ID                  = "HiRes"
Abbreviated name of the instrument that acquired the image data.

TARGET_NAME                    = "MOON"
Target of the data product.

FILTER_NAME                    = "D"
Designation of the 750 nm HiRes filter, chosen because virtually all images
that make up the Clementine Basemap Mosaic were acquired using the filter "B",
also a 750 nm filter.  (Filter "C" (900 nm) UV/Vis images were used when filter
"B" data were not available.)

The center filter wavelength of filter "D" is 750 nanometers.

BANDWIDTH                      = 50.0000
The bandwidth of the filter "D" is 50 nanometers.

START_TIME                     = "N/A"
STOP_TIME                      = "N/A"
Start_Time, Stop_Time, and clock counts are not applicable (N/A) 
for this data product but are required keywords.

PRODUCT_CREATION_TIME          = 1998-06-16T00:00:00
Time at which the image product was produced.

NOTE                           = "LUNAR HiRes MOSAIC"
Note field always says LUNAR HiRes MOSAIC.

OBJECT                         = IMAGE
BANDS                          = 1
There is only one spectral band in the HiRes mosaic.

Storage order is band sequential

BAND_NAME                      = "N/A"
Band name keyword is not applicable.

LINES                          = xxxx
Number of lines (rows) in image array

LINE_SAMPLES                   = xxxx
Number of samples (columns) in image array.

Data are stored as unsigned, two's complement integers.

SAMPLE_BITS                    = 8
There are 8 bits per sample (1 byte)

SAMPLE_BIT_MASK                = 2#11111111#
This keyword indicates all bits within a 8-bit byte are used in 
the expression of the value.

OFFSET                         = xxxxx
SCALING_FACTOR                 = xxxxx
The OFFSET and SCALING_FACTOR keywords contain values used to 
convert the 8-bit integer pixel value to radiometric units. 


VALID_MINIMUM                  = 1
Lowest valid value that can be stored in pixel (always 1).

NULL                           = 0
Value of empty pixels or missing data (always 0).

LOW_REPR_SATURATION            = 0
Value of pixel if processing caused a low-end value pixel to go 
outside  dynamic range of a 8-bit unsigned integer (always 0).

Value if pixel was low-end saturated (always 0). For example, 
if the bias of the camera was set so that low DN values could not 
be stored in the pixel.

Value of pixel if processing caused a high-end value pixel to go 
outside dynamic range of a 8-bit unsigned integer (always 255).

HIGH_REPR_SATURATION           = 255
Value if pixel was high-end saturated (always 255). For example, 
if the scene was too bright for the image to record at the pixel 
value became saturated.

MINIMUM                        = xxxx
Minimum value in image array.

MAXIMUM                        = xxxx
Maximum value in image array.

CHECKSUM                       = xxxxxxxx
Sum of all bytes in the image object. Used to validate that an 
image file was properly stored on the media.

END_OBJECT                     = IMAGE

OBJECT                         = IMAGE_MAP_PROJECTION
Name of file containing additional information about the map 
DSMAP.CAT is located in the 'catalog' directory.

Coordinate system used in the map projection.

Name of map projection. 

MAP_RESOLUTION                 = xxx.xxxxx
Map resolution (pixels per degree) at the reference point of the 

MAP_SCALE                      = x.xxxxxx
Map scale (kilometers per pixel) at the reference point of the 

MAXIMUM_LATITUDE               = xx.xxxxxxx
Maximum latitude of the image file

MINIMUM_LATITUDE               = xx.xxxxxxx
Minimum latitude of the image file.

EASTERNMOST_LONGITUDE          = xxx.xxxxxxx
Easternmost longitude of the image file.

WESTERNMOST_LONGITUDE          = xxx.xxxxxxx
Westernmost longitude of the image file

LINE_PROJECTION_OFFSET         = xxxxx.xxxxxxx
SAMPLE_PROJECTION_OFFSET       = xxxxx.xxxxxxx
Projection offsets are used to define the relationship between line 
and sample of the image array and the latitude and longitude 
coordinate on the surface of the planet. See '' file 
located in the 'catalog' directory for information on these 

A_AXIS_RADIUS                  = 1737.4000000
B_AXIS_RADIUS                  = 1737.4000000
C_AXIS_RADIUS                  = 1737.4000000
Three axis radius of the Moon used in the derivation of the map 
products that make up the basemap mosaic.

Standard parallels of map, not used in this sinusoidal equal-area 

The Moon coordinate system uses a positive longitude direction of 
east. Longitude values increase in the eastern direction.

CENTER_LATITUDE                = 0.0
Center latitude of the map projection.

CENTER_LONGITUDE               = xxxx.xxxx
Center longitude of the map projection.

REFERENCE_LATITUDE             = "N/A"
Reference latitude and longitudes are not used in the sinusoidal 
equal-area projection.

LINE_FIRST_PIXEL               = 1
SAMPLE_FIRST_PIXEL             = 1
The first pixel (upper left) in the image array is defined as line 
1, sample 1.

LINE_LAST_PIXEL                = xxxx
SAMPLE_LAST_PIXEL              = xxxx
The last pixel (lower right) in the image arrays is defined by 
these keywords.

MAP_PROJECTION_ROTATION        = 0.0000000
Map projection rotation always 0 for the Clementine Basemap Mosaic.

These keywords are not applicable for the sinusoidal equal-area 

END_OBJECT                       = IMAGE_MAP_PROJECTION