Instrument Host Information
Instrument Host Overview
    For most Phoenix Mars Scout Lander experiments, data was collected by
    instruments on the  spacecraft. Those data were then relayed directly
    to stations of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN)  on Earth or
    indirectly using the Mars orbiters Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) or 2001
    Mars Odyssey  (ODY). The following sections provide an overview first
    of the Phoenix spacecraft, then of the DSN  ground system, and finally
    of the 2001 Mars Odyssey, as each supported Phoenix science
  Instrument Host Description
    The Mars Phoenix Lander was build for the canceled Mars 2000 Lander
    Mission. The spacecraft  was refurbished and held as the instrument
    host for the Phoenix mission [SMITHETAL2008]. Phoenix  was the first
    of the Scout class mission and consisted of a single lander with
    associated  instrumentation. The Lander was about 18 feet (5.5 meters)
    long with the solar panels deployed, and  the science deck by itself
    was about 5 feet (1.5 meters) in diameter. From the ground to the top
    of the  MET mast, the Lander measured about 7 feet (2.2 meters) tall.
    The Lander weighed 350 kg, or 770 lbs.  It was launched on August 4,
    2007, on a Delta II 7925 launch vehicle, and was operational until
    November 2, 2008, performing on the Martian surface for 152 sols.
    Power was generated during the cruise stage by two gallium arsenide
    solar panels (total area  3.1 m2, or 33 ft2) mounted to the cruise
    stage. After touchdown, Phoenix relied on two octagonal  gallium
    arsenide solar panel wings extending from the Lander base to charge
    its battery for operations.  Input from the solar panels was
    sufficient to power daytime operations, but nighttime operations
    required additional power from the Lander heater system.
    Phoenix communicated directly with Earth using the X-band portion of
    the radio spectrum (8  to 12 gigahertz) throughout the launch and
    cruise stages. Continuous and instantaneous  communication with the
    spacecraft was maintained throughout the launch phase, switching to
    communication every three days in the cruise phase.  All X-band
    capability was lost once the cruise  stage was jettisoned. During the
    surface mission, the landed Helix antenna on the Lander deck
    communicated with DSN via the orbiters Mars Express (MRO), Mars
    Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Express  (MEX) every four to eight hours.
    Other Lander systems included a single RAD6000 processor, a fault
    detection and correction  system for monitoring spacecraft health, a
    guidance system to land the spacecraft, a propulsion  system for
    touchdown, a data handling system for committing critical data to
    overnight storage during  surface operations, and a heater system to
    ensure the spacecraft maintained an appropriate  temperature . The
    Lander served as a host for various associated instrumentation,
    including six  instrument packages: the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI),
    Robotic Arm (RA) and associated Icy Soil  Acquisition Device (ISAD),
    the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC), the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and
    Conductivity Analyzer (MECA), the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA),
    and the Meteorological  Package (MET) [SMITHETAL2008].
    During most of Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL), Phoenix used a UHF
    antenna that wrapped around  the backshell to give it a wide field of
    view (FOV) for  communications. During terminal descent (approximately
    30 seconds before landing), the Lander switched to the landed Helix
    antenna  and continued transmitting a UHF signal until one minute
    after  landing. This wide FOV was  necessary as the geometry between
    Phoenix and the orbiters MRO, ODY, and MEX  required a very wide
    spread of off-boresight angles.
    Following its soft touchdown between 65 deg N to 72 deg N latitude,
    and after waiting 20 minutes for the dust to settle, the Lander
    performed a number of critical activities. These 'Sol 0' (a sol is  a
    mars day) activities included deployments of the landed solar  arrays,
    the bio-barrier covering the RA, and the SSI and MET  masts. The SSI
    took images of the bio-barrier, solar arrays,  and part of the footpad
    and workspace. High priority EDL and Sol  0 data were saved to flash
    memory within the first hour after  touchdown, after which the Lander
    went to sleep to conserve  energy. The Lander woke up for 10 minutes
    for the first  post-landed UHF communication pass one ODY or MRO orbit
    period  (approximately 2 hours) after landing. After relaying data to
    the orbiters during that first pass, the  Lander went to sleep again.
    Payload heaters were on  continuously from touchdown, with Lander
    heaters kicking in  around midnight for 4-5 hours of keep-alive
    heating.  [GUINNETAL2008]
  Lander on the Surface of Mars
    The first seven sols after Landing were known as the  characterization
    phase, with pre-planned activities running from  a minimum of 3 hours
    on Sol 1 to a maximum of 6.5 hours on Sol 6  (the Lander was active
    for up to 7 hours during the nominal surface  or digging phase). The
    performance of the spacecraft's power, thermal, and UHF subsystems
    were thoroughly characterized during  this phase, and TEGA, MECA, and
    MET instruments went through their initial checkouts and  prepared for
    nominal operations. Concurrent with  these activities, the EDL and Sol
    0 data that were stored in the  non-volatile (flash memory) were
    relayed to the ground. The SSI  imaged as much of the Lander as it
    could see and characterized  the workspace and surrounding
    environment. The  RAC located on the 'wrist' of the RA was  used to
    image the footpads and the TEGA cover, as it was the only  imager that
    could be maneuvered into the proper viewpoint for these  pictures.
    After the Robotic Arm (RA) was checked out, the digging phase
    commenced. The digging phase activities included digging a trench  in
    front of the Lander, and the analysis of soil samples at  various
    trench-depths by the Lander instruments. This phase  continued until
    the End-of-Mission on Sol 90. Operations during  this phase were
    conducted at the University of Arizona.
    The Lander operated for 152 sols and achieved all scientific
  Instrument Host Overview - DSN
    The Deep Space Network is a telecommunications facility managed
    by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of
    Technology for the U.S.  National Aeronautics and Space
    Administration (NASA).
    The primary function of the DSN is to provide two-way
    communications between the Earth and spacecraft exploring the
    solar system.  To carry out this function it is equipped with
    high-power transmitters, low-noise amplifiers and receivers,
    and appropriate monitoring and control systems.
    The DSN consists of three complexes situated at approximately
    equally spaced longitudinal intervals around the globe at
    Goldstone (near Barstow, California), Robledo (near Madrid,
    Spain), and Tidbinbilla (near Canberra, Australia).  Two of
    the complexes are located in the northern hemisphere while the
    third is in the southern hemisphere.
    Each complex includes several antennas, defined by their
    diameters, construction, or operational characteristics:
    70-m diameter, standard 34-m diameter, high-efficiency 34-m
    diameter (HEF), and 34-m beam waveguide (BWG).
    For more information see [ASMAR&RENZETTI1993].
  Instrument Host Overview - 2001 Mars Odyssey
    The 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin
    Astronautics (LMA).  Most spacecraft systems were redundant
    in order to provide backup should a device fail.  In addition
    to transmitting data collected by ODY instruments and systems,
    the telecommunications system was used to relay data from Mars
    surface assets and measure their relative motion radiometrically
    in the 400 MHz frequency range.  For more information, see