Mission Information
MISSION_NAME CASSINI-HUYGENS
MISSION_ALIAS CASSINI
MISSION_START_DATE 1997-10-15T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_STOP_DATE 2017-09-15T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_DESCRIPTION
The majority of text in this file was extracted from Cassini Mission Plan
Documents:
1) Prime Mission Plan, 2003, and Prime Mission Plan As-Flown, Rev. P,
July 2008, Dave Seal [JPL D-5564]
2) Equinox Mission Plan As-Flown, July 2012, Emily Manor-Chapman [JPL D-73535]
3) Solstice Mission Plan, August 2012, Emily Manor-Chapman [JPL D-81137]
 
The Cassini spacecraft, including the Huygens Probe, was launched on 15
October 1997 using a Titan IV/B launch vehicle with Solid Rocket Motor
Upgrade (SRMU) strap-ons and a Centaur upper stage.  The spacecraft used a
6.7-year Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory to
Saturn, during which cruise observations were conducted to check out,
calibrate, and maintain the instruments as well as to perform limited
science.  After Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) (1 July 2004), the Huygens
Probe separated and, on the third encounter with Titan, entered the
satellite's atmosphere to make in situ measurements during an approximately
150 minute descent (14 January 2005).  The Orbiter continued a tour of the
Saturn system collecting data on the planet and its satellites, rings,
and environment.
 
After a highly successful Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) on July 1, 2004
and Huygens Probe descent to the surface of Titan in January of 2005,
Cassini went on to complete its four-year tour of Saturn, its rings,
satellites, and magnetosphere via 75 orbits about Saturn, 45 close
Titan flybys, 4 Enceladus flybys, and 9 close flybys of other icy
satellites along with dozens of Saturn, rings, and Titan radio and
Solar occultations. At the end of the very successful prime mission all
instruments and major spacecraft systems were healthy. Due to the
highly successful execution of the prime mission, the vast quantity of
new discoveries and overall quality of science being returned by the
Cassini spacecraft, and the estimated propellant remaining at the
conclusion of the prime mission, NASA Headquarters allocated funding
for the development of a 2-year Cassini extended mission.
 
At the conclusion of the prime mission tour phase on 01 July 2008,
Cassini initiated a two-year extended mission named the Equinox Mission
(EM) to be completed on 11 October 2010.  This mission featured
an additional 28 Titan flybys, 11 close icy satellite flybys, and
64 orbits of Saturn. The orbit inclination moved from over 70
degrees at the start of the Equinox mission down to 0 degrees in a
little over a year, then back up to 20 degrees in Jan 2010, and down
again in July 2010.  There were seven Enceladus flybys along with single
flybys of Rhea, Mimas, Dione, and Helene.  The Enceladus flybys were
designed to provide close flybys to allow the best views of the plume
expulsions near the South Polar area.  In addition, there were 22
non-targeted, distant flybys of icy satellites.  Titan flybys continued
to map the surface of Titan.  The scientific intensity and priority of
this phase, as judged by the project and by HQ, was of the same level as
that of the prime mission.
 
The second extended mission, temporarily called the Extended-Extended
Mission (XXM) and officially named the Solstice Mission (SM), was
designed as a seven-year mission. Funding for SM was reduced (40% for
engineering, 25% for science) from Prime Mission levels.  Due to project
descoping, the SM Trajectory was not as aggressive as it was for the
Prime Mission or Extended Mission, but it was still scientifically rich.
It began on 11 October 2010 and ended on 15 September 2017.  The SM
featured 54 Titan flybys, 23 close (<20,000 km) icy satellite flybys
(which included 11 Enceladus flybys), and 154 orbits of Saturn.  The
mission continued to explore the features of the Saturnian system such
as the rings, the magnetosphere, and icy satellites, addressed new
questions raised by Cassini's Prime and Equinox missions, as well as
observed seasonal change in the Saturnian system.  The over-arching
goal of the SM was to observe the complex and dynamic Saturn system
over a wider range of geometries and conditions, including the northern
summer solstice, which occurred in May 2017. By the end of mission (EOM),
Cassini observed most of the northern winter season and all of the
northern spring season.
 
On 30 November 2016, Cassini began the penultimate phase of the mission,
the Ring Grazing orbits.  This 20-week phase consisted of 20 high-inclina-
tion orbits with apoapses near Titan's orbit and periapses just outside
the main ring system.  The final, targeted flyby on 22 April 2017 set
Cassini on the Grand Finale, a series of 22 orbits with periapses that
passed between Saturn and its rings.
 
On 11 September, Titan gave Cassini a 'goodbye kiss', a distant non-
targeted flyby that put Cassini on its impact trajectory with Saturn.
End of mission (EOM) occurred on 15 September 2017.  Below are Predicted
and Actual EOM times.
 
 Tumble       SCET         ERT (UTC)    ERT (PDT)   Radius   Lat     Alt
                                                     (km)   (deg)    (km)
 MP Predict   10:31:36.16  11:55:03.16  04:55:03.16  61553  9.714    1480
 Actual       10:31:39.87  11:55:06.87  04:55:06.87  61553  9.612    1456
 
 
Loss of Signal   SCET      ERT (UTC)    ERT (PDT)   Radius   Lat     Alt
                                                     (km)   (deg)    (km)
 AACS Predict 10:31:48.70  11:55:15.70  04:55:15.70  61486  9.366    1399
 X Telemetry  10:31:51.00  11:55:18.00  04:55:18.00  61474  9.302    1385
 Ka Carrier   10:32:04.77  11:55:31.81  04:55:31.87  61402  8.918    1299
 X Carrier    10:32:07.66  11:55:34.70  04:55:34.70  61387  8.837    1281
 S Carrier    10:32:15.81  11:55:42.85  04:55:42.85  61346  8.609    1231
 
 
The Cassini Orbiter (CO) was a three-axis stabilized spacecraft equipped
with one high gain antenna (HGA) and two low gain antennas (LGAs), three
Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for power, main engines,
attitude thrusters, and reaction wheels.  It carried twelve orbiter
instruments designed to carry out 27 diverse science investigations.  The
Huygens Probe (HP) was equipped with six instruments designed to study the
atmosphere and surface of Titan.  It entered the upper atmosphere protected
by a heat shield, then deployed parachutes to descend slowly to the surface
from an altitude of about 200 km.  The instruments, with acronym and
Principal Investigator (PI) or Team Leader (TL), are summarized below:
 
Instrument                              Acronym  PI/TL
-----------------------------------------------  ------------
Orbiter:
Cassini Plasma Spectrometer               CAPS   Young/Furman
Cosmic Dust Analyzer                      CDA    Srama
Composite Infrared Spectrometer           CIRS   Flasar
Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer         INMS   Waite
Imaging Science Subsystem                 ISS    Porco
Magnetometer                              MAG    Dougherty
Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument         MIMI   Krimigis
Cassini Radar                             RADAR  Elachi
Radio and Plasma Wave Science             RPWS   Gurnett
Radio Science Subsystem                   RSS    French
Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph          UVIS   Esposito
Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer VIMS   Brown
 
Probe:
Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser           ACP    Israel
Descent Imager Spectral Radiometer        DISR   Tomasko
Doppler Wind Experiment                   DWE    Bird
Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer       GCMS   Niemann
Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument  HASI   Fulchignoni
Surface Science Package                   SSP    Zarnecki
 
    Mission Phases
    ==============
 
LAUNCH 1997-10-15 to 1997-10-17
       1997-288   to 1997-290
------
 
Cassini successfully lifted-off from the Cape Canaveral Air Station complex
40 on 15 October 1997 at 08:55 UTC. The solid rocket motors burned from
liftoff to separation at 2 min 23 sec at an altitude of 68,300 m. Stage 1
ignition began at 2 min 11 sec at an altitude of 58,500 m, and Stage 2
ignition (and Stage 1 separation) occurred at 5 min 23 sec after liftoff at
167,300 m. During the first three minutes and 27 seconds of flight, the
payload fairing shrouded the spacecraft, protecting it from direct solar
illumination.
 
The Centaur upper stage separated from the launch vehicle at 9 min 13 sec
at 206,700 m. The first Centaur burn began at 9 min 13 sec and lasted
approximately two minutes. This burn placed the Cassini spacecraft into an
elliptical, 170 km by 445 km parking orbit with an inclination of about 30
degrees. After 17 minutes in the parking orbit, the Centaur fired again and
launched Cassini toward Venus en route to Saturn. The injection C3 was 16.6
km^2/s^2.
 
Immediately after separation from the Centaur, the spacecraft's
Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) pointed the HGA toward
the Sun to achieve a thermally safe attitude in which the HGA served as an
umbrella for the remainder of the spacecraft. X-band uplink and downlink
was established through the LGAs, the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS)
Langmuir Probe was deployed, instrument replacement heaters and main engine
oxidizer valve heaters were turned on, and the Stellar Reference Unit
(SRU), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Visible and Infrared Mapping
Spectrometer (VIMS) decontaminations were started.
 
TCM 1  1997-10-18 to 1997-11-14
       1997-291   to 1997-318
-----
 
The Trajectory Correction Maneuver 1 (TCM 1) phase comprised four one-week
sequences. During most of the TCM 1 phase, the spacecraft was in a
relatively quiescent state with the HGA pointed toward the Sun. Telemetry
downlinked by the spacecraft was utilized to make an initial
characterization of the spacecraft and to assess whether its various
subsystems survived the launch. Deployment, decontamination, tank heating,
and AACS checkout activities were started.
 
Before the maneuver itself, the fuel and oxidizer tanks were heated in
order to avoid an irreversible overpressure in the propellant lines.  If
the tanks fully pressurized before the spacecraft passed through the peak
temperature regime, then (when the spacecraft did enter the maximum thermal
environment) the tank pressure would climb without there being a way to
bring it back down, possibly causing an overpressure.
 
TCM 1 was an Earth injection clean-up maneuver placed at 25 days after
launch. TCM 1 was executed using the main engine with a delta-V magnitude
of 2.8 m/s. The burn sequence included holding the spacecraft off-Sun after
burn completion to allow the spacecraft heating to be characterized in a
relatively benign environment.
 
INTERPLANETARY CRUISE     1997-11-14 to 1999-11-07
                          1997-318   to 1999-311
---------------------
 
The Interplanetary Cruise Phase extended from 14 November 1997 to 7
November 1999.  It consisted of three subphases:  Venus 1 Cruise,
Instrument Checkout 1, and Venus 2 - Earth Cruise. During most of this
phase, Cassini's proximity to the Sun constrained the spacecraft to remain
Sun-pointed, and communications were conducted using the Low Gain Antennas.
The downlink capability of the LGAs at large spacecraft-Earth ranges was
very limited.  Between 30 and 150 days after launch, for example, the
downlink data rate decreased from 948 to 20 bps.
 
Beginning on 28 December 1998, the spacecraft approached opposition and the
HGA could be pointed towards Earth for a period of 25 days while the Probe
equipment temperature remained within the required range. This provided a
high data rate window during which checkout activities could be
accomplished.
 
      VENUS 1 CRUISE      1997-11-14 to 1998-09-13
                          1997-318   to 1998-256
      --------------
 
The Venus 1 Cruise subphase started on 14 November 1997 and continued
through 13 September 1998. The subphase encompassed sequences C5 through C9
and included two TCMs, one planetary swingby, and three switches between
LGA1 and LGA2. Most of the period was dedicated to engineering and
instrument maintenance activities.
 
         VENUS 1 ENCOUNTER   1998-04-26
                             1998-116
 
The first Venus encounter occurred on 26 April 1998.  The spacecraft
approached Venus from a sunward direction, and closest approach occurred
just after the spacecraft entered the Sun's shadow for a period of about 15
minutes. At closest approach, the altitude was 284 km, with a velocity
relative to Venus of 11.8 km/s. The spacecraft was occulted from Earth for
about 2 hours. The Earth occultation zone started about 15 minutes after
the spacecraft left the Sun occultation zone. Accuracy for the Venus flyby
was assured by using two TCMs (Trajectory Correction Maneuvers), 60 and 20
days before closest approach, and a clean-up maneuver 20 days after the
flyby.
 
     INSTRUMENT CHECKOUT 1    1998-09-14 to 1999-03-14
                              1998-257   to 1999-073
     ---------------------
 
The Instrument Checkout 1 subphase (ICO-1) started on 14 September 1998,
continued through 14 March 1999, and consisted of sequences C10-C13. This
subphase was characterized by the opposition that occurred on 9 January
1999, which allowed use of the HGA for downlink since the Earth and Sun
were nearly aligned as seen from Cassini.
 
All instruments scheduled checkout activities within the 25 day period
centered on opposition. This was the first opportunity since launch to
exercise and check the status of most instruments outside of routine
maintenance. The 'Quiet Test', for example, allowed each instrument to
monitor other instruments as they turned on and off and provided valuable
insight into how to integrate science observations during the Saturn tour.
 
During instrument checkout activities, the spacecraft autonomously went
into a safe state. Accumulating star position errors from the slow turn
required to keep the Sun on the -x-axis triggered AACS fault protection.
Most of the instrument checkout activities were rescheduled after a 10 day
safing period. Those that were not completed were rescheduled for the ICO-2
subphase during Outer Cruise.
 
     VENUS 2 - EARTH CRUISE      1999-03-15 to 1999-11-07
                                 1999-074   to 1999-311
     ----------------------
 
The Venus 2 - Earth Cruise subphase started on 15 March 1999, 45 days prior
to the second Venus flyby, and continued through 7 November 1999, which was
82 days after the Earth flyby. The subphase encompassed sequences C13
through C16, and included seven scheduled TCMs, two planetary swingbys, and
25 science activities in addition to normal engineering activities. Science
activities included maintenance, calibration, checkout, and science
observations using all of the Cassini instruments except INMS and CIRS.
 
         VENUS 2 ENCOUNTER    1999-06-24
                              1999-175
 
TCM-7 was executed 37 days before the Venus 2 Encounter. TCM-8 was
scheduled 21 days prior to Venus 2, but it was canceled. DSN (Deep Space
Network) coverage increased from one to three passes per day in support of
the flyby.
 
         EARTH ENCOUNTER      1999-08-18
                              1999-230
 
The Earth flyby occurred 55 days after the Venus 2 flyby. The spacecraft
approached the Earth from approximately the direction of the Sun. Closest
approach occurred right after the spacecraft entered the Sun occultation
zone. The occultation lasted approximately 30 minutes. The altitude at
closest approach was 1175 km, with an Earth-relative velocity of 19.0 km/s.
Trajectory correction maneuvers took place 43, 30, 15 and 6.5 days before
closest approach, and a clean-up maneuver was executed 13 days after the
flyby. Continuous DSN coverage began at the Venus 2 flyby and continued
through the Earth flyby. A week after the Earth Encounter, DSN coverage
dropped to one pass every two days.
 
Five instruments conducted observations as Cassini passed through the
Earth's magnetotail.
 
OUTER CRUISE  1999-11-08 to 2002-07-07
              1999-312   to 2002-188
------------
 
The Outer Cruise Phase consisted of four subphases: HGA Transition,
Instrument Checkout 2, Jupiter Cruise, and Quiet Cruise. The Outer Cruise
phase extended from 8 November 1999 (when the spacecraft reached a Sun
range of 2.7 AU) to 7 July 2002 (about two years before Saturn Orbit
Insertion). At 2.7 AU (1 February 2000), the HGA began continuous Earth-
pointing. The one planetary encounter in this phase was the flyby of
Jupiter in December 2000. Science at Jupiter was an opportunity to test
Saturn observation strategies with HGA data rates.
 
     HIGH GAIN ANTENNA TRANSITION  1999-11-08 to 2000-05-06
                                   1999-312   to 2000-127
     ----------------------------
 
This subphase included sequences C17 to C19, operation of ISS and VIMS
decontamination heaters, CDA dust calibrations, and Magnetosphere and
Plasma Science (MAPS) observations after the HGA was pointed toward Earth.
 
During the initial part of the subphase (C17 and part of C18),
telecommunications were via LGA1, and the spacecraft was at the farthest
distance from Earth before transitioning to the HGA for regular use.
Therefore, data rates were very low and activities were kept to a minimum.
C17 included standard maintenance and one Periodic Engineering Maintenance
(PEM) activity. Activities during the LGA1 portion of C18 included a
Periodic Instrument Maintenance (PIM); observations by ISS, VIMS, and UVIS
of the asteroid Masursky near closest approach (1,634,000 km); and ISS dark
frame calibration images directly following the Masursky observations.
 
The HGA was turned toward Earth for regular use on 1 February 2000, during
C18. Several activities took place during the rest of C18, using the
greater telemetry capabilities available with the HGA:  playback of the
Masursky data and ISS dark frames, a Probe checkout, a Huygens Probe S-band
Relay to Cassini Test, a Telemetry-Ranging Interference Test, MAG
calibrations, and a PEM. Regular MAPS observations by CAPS, CDA, MAG, MIMI,
and RPWS began within a few days after transitioning to the HGA.
 
The first 6 weeks of C19 were used for a checkout of new Flight Software.
The AACS version A7 software was uploaded near the beginning of this
period, and the first 2 weeks were devoted to AACS tests. The next 4 weeks
were originally scheduled for CDS tests of version V7.0. However, these
tests were delayed to late July and August of 2000 to allow time for
additional regression testing. During the AACS checkout period, MAPS
activity ceased. Several activities took place during the last 3 weeks of
C19: resumption of MAPS observations, three RSS activities (HGA pattern
calibration, HGA boresight calibration, and USO characterization), CIRS
Cooler Cover release, and a PIM.
 
A few days before the end of C19, the command loss timer setting was
increased slightly, to account for the 10-day period at the beginning of
C20 during which superior conjunction made commanding problematic.
 
     INSTRUMENT CHECKOUT 2   2000-05-06 to 2000-11-05
                             2000-127   to 2000-310
     ---------------------
 
The second instrument checkout subphase (ICO-2) was scheduled from 6 May
2000 to 5 November of 2000, after the Spacecraft Office had completed its
engineering checkout activities. ICO-2 included instrument checkout that
required reaction wheel stability and any instrument checkouts that were
not successfully completed during ICO-1. But the CDS Flight Software V7
uplink and checkout, which was delayed from March, was rescheduled to late
July through early September 2000, causing many ICO-2 activities to be
compressed into a shorter and more intense period. Some activities were
postponed until after the Jupiter observations were completed in 2001.
 
The subphase began with a superior conjunction, which precluded early
science or engineering activities. MAPS instruments remained on; but data
return was not attempted during conjunction. Two TCMs were scheduled for
Jupiter targeting, in June and September.
 
Engineering activities included the continuous use of reaction wheels and,
beginning on 1 October 2000, dual Solid State Recorders (SSRs). There were
no scheduled instrument PIMs during ICO-2 since all instruments had other
activities that accomplished this function. Other engineering activities
included two Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) friction tests, two PEMs, and an
SRU calibration.
 
Science activities began with the MAPS instruments continuing from C19. New
flight software was loaded for eight instruments in late May, and a CDA
software update was done in September. New Quiet Tests, while operating on
reaction wheels, were done in July for most instruments. RSS Quiet Tests
were done in September, and RADAR related tests were done in late June. A
Probe checkout occurred in late July.
 
Spacecraft turns were done for RADAR observations of the Sun and Jupiter in
June and again in September. The star Alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut)
was also observed in September by VIMS with ISS and UVIS doing ride-along
science. No other science turns were scheduled until October. On 1 October,
science began using a repeating 5-day template to gather Jupiter science.
This involved 11 turns in a 5 day period, including two downlinks. The
turns in the 5-day template involved 4 orientations:
 
     Orbiter Remote Science (ORS) boresights to Jupiter,
       Z axis parallel to ecliptic
     HGA to Sun, rolling about Z axis
     Probe to Sun, rotating about X axis
     HGA to Earth, Probe offset from Sun for CDA, not
        rotating, downlink orientation
 
     JUPITER CRUISE          2000-11-05 to 2001-04-30
                             2000-310   to 2001-120
     --------------
 
The Jupiter Cruise subphase extended from 6 November 2000 to 29 April 2001
and included sequences C23 to C25. However Jupiter remote sensing
observations actually began on 1 October 2000, in C22.
 
         JUPITER ENCOUNTER   2000-12-30
                             2000-365
 
The Jupiter flyby occurred on 30 December 2000 at an altitude of 9.7
million km. This gravity assist rotated the trajectory 12 deg and increased
the heliocentric velocity by 2 km/s. The Jupiter relative speed at closest
approach was 11.6 km/s. At closest approach, Jupiter filled the Narrow
Angle Camera (NAC) field of view. Extensive Jupiter science was performed
which required additional DSN support: up to two passes every five days,
and a maximum of one pass every 30 hours in the 10 days on either side of
closest approach. Science at Jupiter was an opportunity to test how to
build and execute viable Saturn sequences.
 
A problem with the Reaction Wheel Assembly occurred on 16 December 2000.
Increased friction on one of the wheels caused the spacecraft to switch
autonomously to the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) for attitude control.
With the switch to RCS, hydrazine usage increased. Two of four joint
CAPS-Hubble Space Telescope observations, a Jupiter North-South map,
the Himalia 'flyby', and a UVIS torus observation were all executed on RCS
before the sequence was terminated on 19 December 2000. MAPS data continued
to be recorded at a reduced rate. All other planned science activities
were suspended.  After tests, RWA operation was resumed for attitude control
on 22 December, with the wheels biased away from low RPM regions.
The sequence was restarted on 29 December.
 
     QUIET CRUISE            2001-04-30 to 2002-07-08
                             2001-120   to 2002-189
     ------------
 
Quiet Cruise was a 14 month subphase that started at the end of Jupiter
Cruise and ended two years before SOI. During this subphase, routine
maintenance, engineering, and navigation functions were carried out. One
Gravitational Wave Experiment (GWE) was conducted in December 2001, and one
Solar Conjunction Experiment (SCE) was conducted in June 2002.
 
     SCIENCE CRUISE    2002-07-08 to 2004-06-10
                       2002-189   to 2004-162
     ----------------
 
     SPACE SCIENCE     2002-07-08 to 2004-01-11
                       2002-189   to 2004-011
 
The Space Science subphase began on 8 July 2002 and ran through 11 January
2004. TCMs 18 and 19, two GWEs (December 2002 and December 2003) and one
SCE (June-July 2003) were conducted.
 
     APPROACH SCIENCE  2004-01-12 to 2004-06-10
                       2004-012   to 2004-162
 
The Approach Science subphase began six months before SOI and ended three
weeks before SOI, when the spacecraft was approaching Saturn at a rate of 5
kilometers per second. Most of the activities during the Approach Science
subphase were Saturn science observations and preparation for the Phoebe
flyby, SOI, and Tour operations.
 
The reaction wheels were turned on at the beginning of the subphase to
provide a more stable viewing platform. By this point, the imaging
instruments had begun atmospheric imaging, and making long-term atmospheric
movies. CIRS began long integrations of Saturn's disk. At SOI - 4 months,
Saturn filled one third of the NAC field of view and one half of the CIRS
Far Infrared (FIR) field of view.
 
The Saturn approach was made toward the morning terminator at a phase angle
of about 75 degrees; VIMS gathered data on the temperature difference
across the terminator. UVIS scans of the Saturn System began 3-4 months
before SOI. Fields, particles, and waves instruments collected solar wind
information and recorded Saturn emissions as the spacecraft neared the
planet. Science data gathered during this period was stored on the SSR and
transmitted back to Earth. Daily DSN tracking coverage began 90 days before
SOI.
 
The Phoebe approach TCM took place on 27 May 2004, 15 days before Phoebe
closest approach.
 
 
TOUR PRE-HUYGENS  2004-06-11 to 2004-12-24
                  2004-163   to 2004-359
----------------
 
The Tour Pre-Huygens Phase extended from the Phoebe Encounter through
Saturn Orbit Insertion to separation of the Huygens Probe from the Cassini
Orbiter.
 
     PHOEBE ENCOUNTER         2004-06-11
                              2004-163
 
The flyby of Phoebe occurred on 11 June 2004, 19 days before SOI.  At
closest approach (19:33 UTC) the spacecraft was 2000 km above the surface.
 
     SATURN ORBIT INSERTION   2004-07-01
                              2004-183
 
During Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004, the spacecraft made its
closest approach to the planet's surface (until the Grand Finale in 2017)
at an altitude of only 0.3 Saturn radii (18,000 km).  Due to this unique
opportunity, the approximately 95-minute SOI burn (633 m/s total delta-V),
required to place Cassini in orbit around Saturn, was executed earlier than
its optimal point centered around periapsis, and instead ended near
periapsis, allowing science observations immediately after burn completion.
The SOI maneuver placed the spacecraft in an initial orbit with a periapsis
radius of 1.3 Rs, a period of 148 days, and an inclination of 16.8 degrees.
 
After the burn, the spacecraft was turned to allow the ORS instruments to
view the Saturn inner rings that were not in shadow. After periapsis, the
trajectory just grazed the occultation zones behind the planet with the
Earth and Sun being occulted by Saturn.  After communication with Earth was
re-established, the spacecraft remained on Earth pointed for nine hours to
play back engineering and science data and to give ground personnel time to
evaluate the spacecraft status.
 
After SOI a pair of cleanup maneuvers was used to correct for errors in the
SOI burn. The first was immediately before superior conjunction, at SOI + 3
days, and the second was after conjunction at SOI + 16 days.
 
Probe checkouts were scheduled at SOI + 14 days, Probe Release Maneuver
(PRM) + 4 days, and ten days before separation.
 
The partial orbit between SOI and the first apoapsis was designated orbit
0.  The next three orbits were designated a, b, and c.
 
     TITAN A ENCOUNTER        2004-10-26
                              2004-300
 
     TITAN B ENCOUNTER        2004-12-13
                              2004-348
 
 
HUYGENS DESCENT  2004-12-24 to 2005-01-14
                 2004-359   to 2005-014
---------------
 
     HUYGENS PROBE SEPARATION 2004-12-24
                              2004-359
 
The probe was released from the Orbiter on 24 December 2004, 11 days after
the second Titan flyby (orbit b).  Two days after the Probe was released,
the Orbiter executed a deflection maneuver to place itself on the proper
trajectory for the third encounter.
 
 
     TITAN C HUYGENS          2005-01-14
                              2005-014
 
During the third flyby (orbit c), on 14 January 2005, the Huygens Probe
transmitted data to the orbiter for approximately 150 minutes during its
descent through the atmosphere to the surface.
 
Because the Orbiter was looking at Titan through most of the corresponding
Goldstone tracking pass, DSN support on this day was primarily through the
70-meter antennas at the Canberra and Madrid tracking complexes. While
approaching Titan, the Orbiter made its last downlink transmission (to the
Madrid station, DSS 63) before switching to Probe relay mode. The Orbiter
then turned nearly 180 degrees to point its HGA at the predicted Probe
impact point, and the Probe Support Avionics (PSA) were configured to
receive data from the Probe. Some Orbiter instruments were put into a low
power state to provide additional power for the PSA. The data from the
Probe were transmitted at S band in two separate data streams, and both
were recorded on each SSR. Following completion of the predicted descent
(maximum 150 minutes), the Orbiter listened for Probe signals for an
additional 30 minutes, in case they continued after landing.
 
When data collection from the Probe was completed, those data were write
protected on each SSR. The spacecraft then turned to view Titan with
optical remote sensing instruments until about one hour after closest
approach.
 
The Orbiter then turned the HGA towards Earth and began transmitting the
recorded Probe data to the Canberra 70-m antenna. The complete, four-fold
redundant set of Probe data was transmitted twice, and its receipt
verified, before the write protection on that portion of the SSR was lifted
by ground command. A second playback, including all of the Probe data and
the Orbiter instrument observations, was returned over the subsequent
Madrid 70-meter tracking pass, which was longer and at higher elevation
angles.
 
TOUR   2005-01-14 to 2008-06-30
       2005-014   to 2008-182
----
 
The Tour Phase of the mission began at completion of the Huygens Probe and
Orbiter-support playback and ended on 30 June 2008.  It included dozens of
satellite encounters and extended observations of Saturn, its rings, and
its environment of particles and fields.
 
     TOUR SEQUENCE BOUNDARIES
 
The table below shows spacecraft background sequences, orbit revolution,
start epoch (including day-of-year in a separate column), and the length of
the sequence.  For completeness, all 'S' sequences are listed even though
the first seven covered times before the Tour phase.  Each orbit about
Saturn was assigned a revolution identifier starting with a, b, and c, and
then numerically ascending from 3 to 74; these were not synchronous with
sequences, some of which covered only partial orbits.  Full orbits began
and ended at apoapsis; the partial orbit from SOI to the first apoapsis was
orbit 0.
 
               Sequence  Rev     Epoch (SCET)     DOY   Duration
                                                        In days
               --------  ---  -----------------   ---   --------
                  S1      0   2004-May-14 18:40   135      36
                  S2      0   2004-Jun-19 21:52   171      41
                  S3      0   2004-Jul-30 21:32   212      44
                  S4      A   2004-Sep-12 11:35   256      36
                  S5      A   2004-Oct-18 09:30   292      28
                  S6      A   2004-Nov-15 07:49   320      31
                  S7      B   2004-Dec-16 13:22   351      37
                  S8      C   2005-Jan-22 10:38   022      36
                  S9      3   2005-Feb-27 00:36   058      41
                  S10     6   2005-Apr-09 05:15   099      35
                  S11     8   2005-May-14 02:50   134      35
                  S12    10   2005-Jun-18 01:34   169      44
                  S13    12   2005-Jul-31 22:00   212      30
                  S14    14   2005-Aug-30 21:43   242      39
                  S15    16   2005-Oct-08 12:30   281      35
                  S16    17   2005-Nov-12 17:01   316      35
                  S17    19   2005-Dec-17 14:21   351      41
                  S18    20   2006-Jan-27 04:03   027      43
                  S19    22   2006-Mar-11 00:35   070      42
                  S20    23   2006-Apr-22 05:15   112      42
                  S21    24   2006-Jun-03 02:39   154      44
                  S22    26   2006-Jul-17 00:06   198      34
                  S23    27   2006-Aug-19 22:06   231      32
                  S24    29   2006-Sep-20 20:22   263      32
                  S25    31   2006-Oct-22 18:26   295      33
                  S26    33   2006-Nov-24 16:30   328      42
                  S27    36   2007-Jan-05 13:50   005      43
                  S28    39   2007-Feb-17 10:52   048      39
                  S29    41   2007-Mar-28 08:04   087      38
                  S30    44   2007-May-04 22:00   124      37
                  S31    46   2007-Jun-11 03:10   162      33
                  S32    48   2007-Jul-14 01:06   195      29
                  S33    49   2007-Aug-11 23:20   223      42
                  S34    50   2007-Sep-22 20:51   265      39
                  S35    51   2007-Oct-31 18:40   304      44
                  S36    54   2007-Dec-14 16:00   348      39
                  S37    57   2008-Jan-22 13:35   022      25
                  S38    59   2008-Feb-16 11:51   047      36
                  S39    62   2008-Mar-23 01:50   083      27
                  S40    65   2008-Apr-19 07:18   110      42
                  S41    70   2008-May-31 04:27   152      32
 
     SATELLITE ENCOUNTER SUMMARY
 
This table summarizes the Cassini Orbiter satellite encounters; for
completeness, all recognized encounters are included even those that
preceded the Tour phase.  Rev identifies the orbit revolution as defined
above.  The three character ID for the encounter is in the second column;
an asterisk (*) indicates a targeted encounter.  The target, date, and
time, and day-of-year are in the next three columns.  Altitude above
the surface at closest approach, sense of the encounter (whether on
the inbound or outbound leg of an orbit), relative velocity at closest
approach, and phase angle at closest approach round out the columns.
 
 
*Targeted fly-by
 
Rev   Name    Satellite  Epoch (SCET)        DOY   Alt   in/  Speed Phase
                                                   km    out  km/s   deg
---  -------  ---------  ----------------    ---   ---   ---  -----  ----
0*   00PH P1  Phoebe     2004-Jun-11 19:33   163   2068  in    6.4   24
0    00PO     Polydeuces 2004-Jun-30 20:56   182  67982  in   13.3   90
0    00CP     Calypso    2004-Jun-30 22:26   182  52094  in   14.1   92
0    00ME     Methone    2004-Jul-01 00:16   183  51214  in   12.9   96
0    00MI     Mimas      2004-Jul-01 00:30   183  76488  in   22.3   80
0    00PA     Pandora    2004-Jul-01 01:15   183  89836  in   26.8   89
0    00JA     Janus      2004-Jul-01 01:51   183  67684  in   12.8  106
0    00AN     Anthe      2004-Jul-01 02:27   183 122531  in   16.7  101
0    00PM     Prometheus 2004-Jul-01 03:56   183 107421  out  28.5   91
0    00PN     Pan        2004-Jul-01 04:02   183  57684  out  22.8   88
0    00AG     Aegaeon    2004-Jul-01 04:20   183 112876  out  26.0   94
0    00TI     Titan      2004-Jul-02 09:28   184 339123  out   8.3   67
1*   0ATI TA  Titan      2004-Oct-26 15:30   300   1174  in    6.1   91
2*   0BTI TB  Titan      2004-Dec-13 11:38   348   1192  in    6.1  102
2    0BDI     Dione      2004-Dec-15 01:40   350  72057  in    5.3   84
2    0BMI     Mimas      2004-Dec-15 05:01   350 106743  in    1.6   90
2    0BAG     Aegaeon    2004-Dec-15 05:43   350 121062  in    1.0  108
2    0CIA     Iapetus    2004-Dec-31 18:49   366 123389  in    2.0   94
2*   0CTI TC  Titan      2005-Jan-14 11:11   014  60007  in    5.4   93
2    0CME     Methone    2005-Jan-16 04:58   016 113130  in    1.8   78
2    0CMI     Mimas      2005-Jan-16 06:07   016 107623  in    1.3  100
2    0CPL     Pallene    2005-Jan-16 07:26   016  90823  out   2.4  138
3*   03TI T3  Titan      2005-Feb-15 06:57   046   1579  in    6.0   99
3    03PA     Pandora    2005-Feb-16 23:02   047 102614  in    1.6   62
3    03EP     Epimetheus 2005-Feb-17 00:10   048  73454  in    2.9   78
3    03AT     Atlas      2005-Feb-17 00:23   048  76934  in    1.6   96
3    03CP     Calypso    2005-Feb-17 00:35   048  83226  in    6.9   67
3    03AG     Aegaeon    2005-Feb-17 01:22   048 107572  out   8.3  157
3*   03EN E0  Enceladus  2005-Feb-17 03:30   048   1265  out   6.7  113
3    03PO     Polydeuces 2005-Feb-17 08:47   048   6451  out   8.6  121
4    04HE     Helene     2005-Mar-09 04:32   068  74483  in    6.5   67
4*   04EN E1  Enceladus  2005-Mar-09 09:08   068    498  in    6.6   43
4    04AT     Atlas      2005-Mar-09 11:28   068  73849  in    1.6  108
4    04TE     Tethys     2005-Mar-09 11:44   068  82865  out   6.9   64
5    05TE     Tethys     2005-Mar-29 18:46   088 108644  in   12.2  124
5    05EN     Enceladus  2005-Mar-29 20:32   088  55572  in    9.7  134
5    05PL     Pallene    2005-Mar-29 21:48   088  30586  in    7.0  137
5    05AT     Atlas      2005-Mar-29 22:01   088  97314  in    1.4   68
5    05EP     Epimetheus 2005-Mar-29 23:24   088  62014  in    2.3  102
5    05ME     Methone    2005-Mar-30 00:50   089  52682  out   7.4   82
5    05TL     Telesto    2005-Mar-30 01:32   089  74531  out   6.5   61
5    05PO     Polydeuces 2005-Mar-30 05:59   089 104019  out   6.0   59
5*   05TI T4  Titan      2005-Mar-31 20:05   090   2404  out   5.9   66
6    06PL     Pallene    2005-Apr-14 20:30   104 119295  in   16.6  115
6    06ME     Methone    2005-Apr-14 20:52   104  50428  in   12.3  118
6    06EP     Epimetheus 2005-Apr-15 00:13   105  46189  out   9.8   80
6    06MI     Mimas      2005-Apr-15 01:25   105  82478  out  14.0   94
6    06CP     Calypso    2005-Apr-15 04:21   105  70535  out  12.5  115
6*   06TI T5  Titan      2005-Apr-16 19:11   106   1027  out   6.1  127
7    07HE     Helene     2005-May-02 19:19   122 114175  in    9.9  107
7    07TE     Tethys     2005-May-02 21:47   122  51868  in    9.3  110
7    07EP     Epimetheus 2005-May-02 23:02   122 118465  in    6.2   46
7    07TL     Telesto    2005-May-03 06:15   123 108304  out   8.3   98
7    07TI     Titan      2005-May-04 05:37   124 864241  out  10.3  154
8    08AT     Atlas      2005-May-21 06:29   141  99859  out   6.7  145
8    08PM     Prometheus 2005-May-21 06:47   141 107594  out   6.9  153
8    08EN     Enceladus  2005-May-21 08:12   141 101965  out   8.8   86
9    09TI     Titan      2005-Jun-06 19:05   157 425569  in    5.8   83
9    09PL     Pallene    2005-Jun-08  9:57   159  64545  in    7.0   56
9    09CP     Calypso    2005-Jun-08 10:23   159  97708  in    7.8   64
10   10TI     Titan      2005-Jun-22 12:37   173 920614  in    3.7   65
10   10TI     Titan      2005-Jun-26 07:10   177 874592  in    7.7  111
10   10PN     Pan        2005-Jun-26 14:23   177  94955  in    6.2   84
10   10TL     Telesto    2005-Jun-26 14:48   177  87052  in    8.0   64
11   11PM     Prometheus 2005-Jul-14 19:31   195 122154  in    6.1   51
11*  11EN E2  Enceladus  2005-Jul-14 19:55   195    166  in    8.2   64
11   11ME     Methone    2005-Jul-14 20:47   195  36709  in    7.6  110
11   11EP     Epimetheus 2005-Jul-14 20:55   195  76765  in    6.3   84
11   11AG     Aegaeon    2005-Jul-14 22:11   195 118571  out  11.1  163
12   12DA     Daphnis    2005-Aug-02 03:57   214 102508  in    6.1   68
12   12MI     Mimas      2005-Aug-02 04:21   214  61149  in    6.1   58
12   12PM     Prometheus 2005-Aug-02 05:17   214  84971  in    6.3  111
12   12AN     Anthe      2005-Aug-02 05:27   214 102253  in    8.2   57
12   12CP     Calypso    2005-Aug-02 07:47   214 106191  out   7.1   73
12   12TI     Titan      2005-Aug-02 15:55   214 939763  out   6.5   35
12   12TI     Titan      2005-Aug-06 12:33   218 837688  out   3.8   62
13   13TE     Tethys     2005-Aug-20 07:02   232 122851  in   12.4  123
13   13TL     Telesto    2005-Aug-20 12:12   232 105274  out   7.8   67
13*  13TI T6  Titan      2005-Aug-22 08:53   234   3660  out   5.9   44
14   14AG     Aegaeon    2005-Sep-05 10:47   248   8509  in    8.1  115
14   14PA     Pandora    2005-Sep-05 11:31   248  51933  in    7.0   57
14   14PM     Prometheus 2005-Sep-05 11:32   248 102389  in   14.6  151
14   14ME     Methone    2005-Sep-05 13:56   248  63015  out  10.2   91
14   14AN     Anthe      2005-Sep-05 14:13   248 105000  out  14.3   91
14*  14TI T7  Titan      2005-Sep-07 08:11   250   1075  out   6.1   85
15   15CP     Calypso    2005-Sep-23 18:50   266  91043  in    7.0   83
15   15AN     Anthe      2005-Sep-23 19:26   266 121100  in   15.4  128
15   15MI     Mimas      2005-Sep-23 19:39   266  70027  in   11.8  133
15   15PM     Prometheus 2005-Sep-23 22:26   266  98000  out   7.6  159
15   15TE     Tethys     2005-Sep-24 02:42   267   1493  out   9.0   68
15   15TI     Titan      2005-Sep-24 22:47   267 911727  out  10.7  149
15*  15HY H1  Hyperion   2005-Sep-26 02:24   269    466  out   5.6   49
16   16TI     Titan      2005-Oct-10 22:22   283 776296  in    9.7   65
16*  16DI D1  Dione      2005-Oct-11 17:52   284    498  in    9.1   66
16   16TL     Telesto    2005-Oct-11 20:25   284   9518  in    8.7   63
16   16PL     Pallene    2005-Oct-11 22:48   284  50440  in   10.8  125
16   16AT     Atlas      2005-Oct-12 01:54   285  55655  out   4.0  143
16   16EN     Enceladus  2005-Oct-12 03:03   285  49079  out   6.8   73
17*  17TI T8  Titan      2005-Oct-28 04:15   301   1353  in    5.9  105
17   17ME     Methone    2005-Oct-29 21:37   302  98872  in    2.1   57
17   17CP     Calypso    2005-Oct-30 02:50   303 107877  out   9.4   66
18*  18RH R1  Rhea       2005-Nov-26 22:37   330    504  in    7.3   87
18   18EN     Enceladus  2005-Nov-27 10:24   331 107849  in    7.5  134
18   18HE     Helene     2005-Nov-27 14:36   331  86431  out   5.5   87
19   19EN     Enceladus  2005-Dec-24 20:28   358  94051  in    6.7  133
19   19PL     Pallene    2005-Dec-24 22:25   358 107288  out   4.4  142
19   19TL     Telesto    2005-Dec-25 00:44   359  19271  out   5.9   70
19   19HE     Helene     2005-Dec-25 01:45   359  74713  out   5.4   90
19*  19TI T9  Titan      2005-Dec-26 18:59   360  10411  out   5.6   67
20*  20TI T10 Titan      2006-Jan-15 11:41   015   2043  in    5.8  120
21   21HE     Helene     2006-Feb-25  4:47   056  67544  in    7.1   92
21*  21TI T11 Titan      2006-Feb-27 08:25   058   1812  out   5.9   92
22*  22TI T12 Titan      2006-Mar-19 00:05   078   1949  in    5.8  148
22   22RH     Rhea       2006-Mar-21 07:15   080  82011  out   5.3  137
23*  23TI T13 Titan      2006-Apr-30 20:58   120   1856  out   5.8  121
24*  24TI T14 Titan      2006-May-20 12:18   140   1879  in    5.8  163
24   24PO     Polydeuces 2006-May-22 14:53   142  64078  out   6.9   19
25*  25TI T15 Titan      2006-Jul-02 09:20   183   1906  out   5.8  148
26*  26TI T16 Titan      2006-Jul-22 00:25   203    950  in    6.0  105
26   26TE     Tethys     2006-Jul-23 17:17   204 119806  in    9.9   29
26   26AG     Aegaeon    2006-Jul-23 22:46   204  93380  out   3.8   16
26   26TL     Telesto    2006-Jul-24 01:57   205  44793  out   8.6   39
27   27HE     Helene     2006-Aug-17 03:28   229  48728  out   7.7  122
27   27TI     Titan      2006-Aug-18 17:50   230 339768  out   4.8  121
28*  28TI T17 Titan      2006-Sep-07 20:16   250   1000  in    6     45
28   28AT     Atlas      2006-Sep-09 17:32   252 119811  in   15     47
28   28ME     Methone    2006-Sep-09 19:16   252  15118  out  10.2   62
28   28CP     Calypso    2006-Sep-09 19:24   252 107228  out   9.7  162
28   28EN     Enceladus  2006-Sep-09 20:06   252  39935  out  10.4  111
29*  29TI T18 Titan      2006-Sep-23 18:58   266    960  in    6     90
29   29AG     Aegaeon    2006-Sep-25 20:19   268 107424  out  11.8   29
29   29ME     Methone    2006-Sep-25 21:44   268  63838  out  10.1   39
30*  30TI T19 Titan      2006-Oct-09 17:30   282    980  in    6     81
31*  31TI T20 Titan      2006-Oct-25 15:58   298   1030  in    6     25
32   32EN     Enceladus  2006-Nov-09 01:47   313  90225  out  14     26
32   32CP     Calypso    2006-Nov-09 03:44   313 116097  out  11.7  111
33   33DI     Dione      2006-Nov-21 02:28   325  75000  out  12.2  147
33   33TI     Titan      2006-Nov-21 13:35   325 973182  out   8     78
33   33TI     Titan      2006-Nov-25 13:28   329 925037  out   4.5  115
34   34TI     Titan      2006-Dec-02 23:16   336 945245  out  12.2  159
34   34TL     Telesto    2006-Dec-03 01:19   337 102504  out  12.1  111
35*  35TI T21 Titan      2006-Dec-12 11:41   346   1000  in    5.9  125
36*  36TI T22 Titan      2006-Dec-28 10:05   362   1297  in    5.9   62
37*  37TI T23 Titan      2007-Jan-13 08:38   013   1000  in    6     53
38*  38TI T24 Titan      2007-Jan-29 07:15   029   2631  in    5.8   72
38   38TI     Titan      2007-Feb-05 07:42   036 910072  out   5.9  114
39   39TI     Titan      2007-Feb-15 03:09   046 867510  in    5.5  128
39*  39TI T25 Titan      2007-Feb-22 03:12   053   1000  out   6.2  161
40*  40TI T26 Titan      2007-Mar-10 01:49   069    981  out   6.2  150
41*  41TI T27 Titan      2007-Mar-26 00:23   085   1010  out   6.2  144
42*  42TI T28 Titan      2007-Apr-10 22:58   100    991  out   6.2  137
43   43DI     Dione      2007-Apr-24 14:51   114 114238  in   11.4   69
43   43TL     Telesto    2007-Apr-24 15:59   114 107379  in   11.1   99
43*  43TI T29 Titan      2007-Apr-26 21:32   116    981  out   6.2  130
44*  44TI T30 Titan      2007-May-12 20:09   132    959  out   6.2  122
45   45TE     Tethys     2007-May-26 20:46   146 102788  in   12     78
45   45EP     Epimetheus 2007-May-26 23:13   146  58286  in    8.7  148
45*  45TI T31 Titan      2007-May-28 18:51   148   2299  out   6.1  114
46   46MI     Mimas      2007-Jun-11 23:03   162 111984  in   16.7   95
46   46AT     Atlas      2007-Jun-12 00:11   163  34020  in    7.5  117
46   46PM     Prometheus 2007-Jun-12 00:18   163  69721  in   11.7   79
46   46EP     Epimetheus 2007-Jun-12 00:58   163  80606  out  10.6  144
46   46ME     Methone    2007-Jun-12 02:26   163  61698  out   9    100
46*  46TI T32 Titan      2007-Jun-13 17:46   164    965  out   6.2  107
47   47TE     Tethys     2007-Jun-27 19:42   178  18419  in   10.6  116
47   47ME     Methone    2007-Jun-27 22:23   178  22632  in   10.9  114
47   47MI     Mimas      2007-Jun-27 22:47   178 102923  in   17    110
47   47AG     Aegaeon    2007-Jun-27 23:13   178  15451  in    9.4  107
47   47EN     Enceladus  2007-Jun-28 00:51   179  88671  in    9.3   54
47   47PM     Prometheus 2007-Jun-28 01:42   179  35160  out   9.1  153
47   47EP     Epimetheus 2007-Jun-28 02:07   179  86632  out  15.7  153
47   47AN     Anthe      2007-Jun-28 02:41   179  32194  out   7.6   49
47   47RH     Rhea       2007-Jun-28 12:00   179 104381  out  10.7  105
47*  47TI T33 Titan      2007-Jun-29 16:59   180   1933  out   6.2   96
48*  48TI T34 Titan      2007-Jul-19 01:11   200   1332  in    6.2   34
48   48HE     Helene     2007-Jul-20 17:17   201  38264  in    4.7   55
48   48TE     Tethys     2007-Jul-20 18:16   201  95187  in    6.5   94
49   49TE     Tethys     2007-Aug-29 11:14   241  55392  in    4.8  102
49   49RH     Rhea       2007-Aug-30 01:19   242   5728  out   6.7   46
49*  49TI T35 Titan      2007-Aug-31 06:32   243   3324  out   6.1   87
49*  49IA I1  Iapetus    2007-Sep-10 14:15   253   1618  out   2.4   59
50   50DI     Dione      2007-Sep-30 05:47   273  43421  in    5.7   49
50   50EN     Enceladus  2007-Sep-30 10:51   273 101478  in    6.5   95
50   50TL     Telesto    2007-Sep-30 15:08   273  75922  out   7.7  163
50*  50TI T36 Titan      2007-Oct-02 04:42   275    973  out   6.3   67
51   51HY     Hyperion   2007-Oct-21 15:01   294 121761  in    4.9  116
51   51TI     Titan      2007-Oct-22 01:12   295 438394  in    4.2   30
51   51HE     Helene     2007-Oct-24 00:33   297  23945  in    7.7   76
51   51PM     Prometheus 2007-Oct-24 06:29   297 104600  in    1.5  166
52   52RH     Rhea       2007-Nov-16 19:42   320  91626  in    9.3  150
52   52AG     Aegaeon    2007-Nov-17 06:14   321  99705  in    3.3  150
52   52PA     Pandora    2007-Nov-17 06:59   321  93411  in    1.6  163
52   52PN     Pan        2007-Nov-17 08:05   321  96662  out   1.3  138
52   52EP     Epimetheus 2007-Nov-17 09:20   321  99462  out   1.9  102
52   52CP     Calypso    2007-Nov-17 12:34   321  87977  out  10.5  147
52*  52TI T37 Titan      2007-Nov-19 00:47   323   1000  out   6.3   51
53   53TL     Telesto    2007-Dec-03 05:23   337 119567  in    8.9   20
53   53MI     Mimas      2007-Dec-03 05:25   337  84271  in   15.0  139
53   53AG     Aegaeon    2007-Dec-03 06:02   337  81120  in   15.0  131
53   53EP     Epimetheus 2007-Dec-03 06:51   337   9181  in    7.6  141
53*  53TI T38 Titan      2007-Dec-05 00:06   339   1298  out   6.3   70
54*  54TI T39 Titan      2007-Dec-20 22:57   354    970  out   6.3   61
55   55DI     Dione      2008-Jan-03 20:13   003 121814  in   11.1   76
55   55PL     Pallene    2008-Jan-03 21:52   003 105664  in    9.4  120
55   55JA     Janus      2008-Jan-03 22:11   003 118142  in   10.1  154
55   55DA     Daphnis    2008-Jan-03 22:50   003 119016  in   10.4  157
55   55PM     Prometheus 2008-Jan-03 23:11   003 112567  in   10.5  152
55   55PA     Pandora    2008-Jan-04 00:33   004 123132  in   11.3  119
55*  55TI T40 Titan      2008-Jan-05 21:30   005   1014  out   6.3   38
56   56ME     Methone    2008-Jan-15 21:11   015  15612  in   13.7  142
56   56AN     Anthe      2008-Jan-15 21:31   015  99968  in   16.8  108
56   56PA     Pandora    2008-Jan-15 22:19   015  95190  in   16.2  116
57   57TI     Titan      2008-Jan-22 21:22   022 855500  in    4.5   69
57   57TI     Titan      2008-Jan-27 12:32   027 985542  in    9.4   60
57   57AT     Atlas      2008-Jan-27 19:15   027  75202  in   13.6  151
57   57EP     Epimetheus 2008-Jan-27 20:16   027  89734  in   16.2  116
57   57PM     Prometheus 2008-Jan-27 20:17   027  82362  in   15.4  125
57   57PA     Pandora    2008-Jan-27 20:45   027 114395  in   17.3  109
58   58EP     Epimetheus 2008-Feb-08 16:59   039 116975  in   13.4  121
58   58AN     Anthe      2008-Feb-08 18:13   039  70355  in   15.6  108
58   58PA     Pandora    2008-Feb-08 19:23   039 114439  in   17.3  110
58   58AT     Atlas      2008-Feb-08 19:26   039 114718  out  17.2  110
59   59PN     Pan        2008-Feb-20 17:50   051  79784  in   13.8  152
59   59PM     Prometheus 2008-Feb-20 18:19   051  65855  in   14.2  152
59   59PA     Pandora    2008-Feb-20 18:29   051  66343  in   14.5  145
59   59JA     Janus      2008-Feb-20 19:08   051 110347  in   17.3  111
59*  59TI T41 Titan      2008-Feb-22 17:32   053   1000  out   6.3   30
60   60DA     Daphnis    2008-Mar-02 03:44   062  97744  in   15.8  155
60   60PM     Prometheus 2008-Mar-02 04:15   062  99682  in   16.3  141
61   61TI     Titan      2008-Mar-10 19:49   070 918311  in    6.3  124
61*  61EN E3  Enceladus  2008-Mar-12 19:06   072     47  in   14.4  137
61   61DA     Daphnis    2008-Mar-12 20:15   072 104053  in   16.4  139
62   62AN     Anthe      2008-Mar-23 09:23   083 124573  in   14.4  110
62   62PL     Pallene    2008-Mar-23 10:36   083  32686  in   15.0  135
62   62EP     Epimetheus 2008-Mar-23 10:54   083  84176  in   15.6  152
62   62ME     Methone    2008-Mar-23 11:24   083 102766  in   17.0  114
62*  62TI T42 Titan      2008-Mar-25 14:27   085    999  out   6.3   21
63   63TI     Titan      2008-Apr-01 15:52   092 973783  in   12.9   36
63   63PL     Pallene    2008-Apr-01 17:19   092 104464  in   14.8  123
63   63AG     Aegaeon    2008-Apr-01 18:16   092 103555  in   15.9  157
63   63JA     Janus      2008-Apr-01 19:09   092 117132  in   16.6  148
64   64MI     Mimas      2008-Apr-11 09:28   102 106544  in   17.1  129
65   65MI     Mimas      2008-Apr-20 20:44   111 116388  in   15.6  135
65   65TL     Telesto    2008-Apr-20 21:47   111  77610  in   15.5   88
65   65EP     Epimetheus 2008-Apr-20 22:33   111 119102  in   16.8  148
66   66TI     Titan      2008-Apr-26 18:56   117 780171  in    5.5   94
66   66TL     Telesto    2008-Apr-30 10:26   121  35753  in   14.5   45
66   66PL     Pallene    2008-Apr-30 11:50   121  93069  in   16.4  123
67   67ME     Methone    2008-May-09 23:35   130  95838  in   15.2  138
67   67JA     Janus      2008-May-10 00:05   131 120786  in   16.3  156
67   67AN     Anthe      2008-May-10 00:20   131  71277  in   15.4  156
67*  67TI T43 Titan      2008-May-12 10:01   133   1001  out   6.3   36
68   68CP     Calypso    2008-May-17 23:03   138 111500  in   18.4   52
68   68ME     Methone    2008-May-17 23:35   138  78918  in   20.1  105
68   68EP     Epimetheus 2008-May-18 00:05   139  98915  out  21.5  118
69   69AG     Aegaeon    2008-May-25 21:55   146  52199  in   19.0  119
69   69PL     Pallene    2008-May-25 22:05   146  28257  in   18.3   51
69   69AT     Atlas      2008-May-25 22:14   146  60523  in   19.9  155
69   69JA     Janus      2008-May-25 22:49   146  63866  in   20.4  134
69*  69TI T44 Titan      2008-May-28 08:24   149   1400  out   6.3   21
70   70PL     Pallene    2008-Jun-01 22:01   153 115591  in   21.4   66
70   70JA     Janus      2008-Jun-01 22:13   153  32921  in   22.1  109
71   71PN     Pan        2008-Jun-09 00:43   161 116078  in   23.6  103
71   71AN     Anthe      2008-Jun-09 01:38   161  34935  in   21.2   18
71   71PA     Pandora    2008-Jun-09 02:16   161  64065  out  23.5  119
72   72TI     Titan      2008-Jun-13 04:28   165 364575  in    5.8   88
72   72EP     Epimetheus 2008-Jun-16 04:59   168  23103  in   22.5  127
72   72PM     Prometheus 2008-Jun-16 05:02   168  31849  in   22.8  142
72   72AN     Anthe      2008-Jun-16 05:19   168 118784  out  23.3  100
72   72ME     Methone    2008-Jun-16 05:19   168 113234  out  23.3  100
73   73ME     Methone    2008-Jun-23 08:05   175  55483  in   21.9   76
73   73PN     Pan        2008-Jun-23 08:18   175  48789  in   23.3  132
74   74TI     Titan      2008-Jun-28 15:58   180 729792  in    7.9  107
74   74PM     Prometheus 2008-Jun-30 08:15   182  65574  in   22.6  106
74   74EN     Enceladus  2008-Jun-30 08:46   182  83739  in   21.1   49
74   74JA     Janus      2008-Jun-30 08:57   182  29620  in   22.6  124
74   74ME     Methone    2008-Jun-30 09:05   182  84860  in   22.5   92
74   74AG     Aegaeon    2008-Jun-30 09:20   182  95515  out  23.7  107
74   74AT     Atlas      2008-Jun-30 09:22   182  73454  out  24    119
 
 
     END OF PRIME MISSION     2008-06-30
                              2008-182
     --------------------
 
 
 
Equinox (EXTENDED MISSION)    2008-07-01 to 2010-09-29
                              2008-183 to 2010-272
----------------
The Cassini prime mission was the most complex gravity-assist tour ever
flown. The extended mission maintained this level of design and
navigational complexity in order to meet and balance the myriad of
disparate scientific objectives requested by the Cassini discipline
working groups within the 2.25-year time frame. As a result, compared
to the prime mission, the EM trajectory clearly meets or exceeds the
intensity of scientific opportunities. The two-year extension consists
of 28 close Titan flybys, twelve close icy satellite flybys (of which
eight are of Enceladus), 64 orbits around Saturn, and dozens more radio
and Solar occultations by Saturn, its rings, and Titan. The EM began
at high inclination, where the prime mission left off, with the
apoapsis of its orbit oriented nearly sunward. This geometry was
maintained for nine months for continued in-situ study of Saturn's
auroral region, complementing incomplete observations made at the end
of the prime mission. Also, these high inclinations allowed for high
priority stellar occultations by the main rings, particularly the very
dense B ring. Since one of the ring-plane crossings of this orbit
geometry was near Enceladus, it was also possible to insert three low
Enceladus flybys during this phase while meeting the other objectives.
Lastly, the Titan flybys during this high inclination phase were
designed to obtain a mid-northern latitude Titan radio occultation and
a high quality groundtrack over the Huygens landing site.  This first
phase completed with a short Titan-Titan 'Pi-transfer' phase, with the
first encounter on one side of Titan's orbit and the second encounter
one-half of one orbit later, on the opposite side of Titan's orbit.
This creative strategy was implemented by the Cassini tour designers as
a highly efficient method to transfer the orbit from one side of Saturn
to another, speeding up the exploration of the environment compared to
a more conventional, encounter-by-encounter rotation.
 
The second major phase of the EM took place over six months in the
poorly sampled 'dusk sector' of Saturn, i.e. the side outward from
Saturn's dusk terminator. This phase contained the Saturnian equinox in
mid-August 2009, and was Cassini's only chance to study this infrequent
geometric event, as it only occurs every 15 years. During this equinox
viewing phase, Cassini's orbit inclination was slowly reduced, offering
a generous variety of observation geometries for Saturn's rings, where
the bulk of the equinox-related objectives are focused. In addition,
Titan flyby geometries allowed for key high-resolution radar mapping and
Titan occultations.
 
The third major phase was dominated by equatorial orbits and icy
satellite encounters. The fourth through seventh Enceladus encounters
occur here, as well as close flybys of Mimas, Dione, Rhea, and Helene
(a Dione coorbital). Two of the Enceladus encounters, E7 and E9, were
designed to pass deep within the plume emanating from the southern
polar region. In addition, two high quality horizontal (ansa to ansa)
ring occultations, long Saturn observation opportunities, a Titan wake
crossing, and mid-northern latitude Saturn occultations were included
in this icy satellite and ansa-to-ansa occultation phase.  The final
phase of the Equinox Mission was several months long, and contains
a series of short Titan transfers designed for gravity measurements,
more high northern Titan observations, and a third horizontal
ring occultation.  It is generally referred to as the high northern
Titan groundtrack phase.
 
               Equinox (Extended) Mission Sequence Boundaries
               ----------------------------------------------
 
               Sequence  Rev     Epoch (SCET)     DOY   Duration
                                                        In days
               --------  ---  -----------------   ---   --------
               S42       74   2008-Jul-01 19:08   183   40
               S43       80   2008-Aug-11 00:20   224   34
               S44       84   2008-Sep-13 22:19   257   35
               S45       89   2008-Oct-18 20:21   292   39
               S46       94   2008-Nov-26 17:55   331   44
               S47       100  2009-Jan-09 15:16   009   39
               S48       103  2009-Feb-17 12:35   048   37
               S49       106  2009-Mar-26 10:05   085   40
               S50       110  2009-May-05 07:16   125   39
               S51       112  2009-Jun-13 04:41   164   41
               S52       115  2009-Jul-23 21:51   204   32
               S53       117  2009-Aug-25 00:04   237   41
               S54       119  2009-Oct-05 04:03   278   40
               S55       121  2009-Nov-13 19:21   317   39
               S56       123  2009-Dec-22 23:26   356   32
               S57       125  2010-Jan-23 15:00   023   37
               S58       127  2010-Mar-01 19:04   060   34
               S59       129  2010-Apr-05 02:49   095   42
               S60       131  2010-May-17 13:31   137   39
               S61*      133  2010-Jun-25 21:10   176   35
               S62*      135  2010-Jul-30 18:51   211   37
               S63*      137  2010-Sep-06 06:33   249   35
               S64**     139  2010-Oct-11 04:17   284   45
               S65**     141  2010-Nov-24 19:35   328   54
               S66**     143  2011-Jan-17 08:42   017   49
               S67**     146  2011-Mar-07 13:02   066   49
          *XXM bridge sequences
          **XXM transition sequences; part of the Solstice Mission
 
 
 
             Equinox (Extended) Mission Satellite Encounter
             ----------------------------------------------
 
*Targeted fly-by
 
Rev   Name      Satellite  Epoch (SCET)        DOY   Alt   in/  Speed Phase
                                                     km    out  km/s   deg
----  -------   ---------  ----------------    ---   ---   ---  -----  ----
75    75JA      Janus      2008-Jul-07 08:57   189  81938  in   22.6    94
75    75PA      Pandora    2008-Jul-07 09:38   189  22899  in   22.6   159
75    75ME      Methone    2008-Jul-07 10:03   189 116261  out  23.4   102
76    76DA      Daphnis    2008-Jul-14 10:06   196  44006  in   22.6   119
76    76PM      Prometheus 2008-Jul-14 10:13   196  32622  in   22.5   127
76    76PL      Pallene    2008-Jul-14 10:36   196  91903  in   22.1    84
76    76TI      Titan      2008-Jul-15 21:26   197 542891  out   8.4   127
77    77PL      Pallene    2008-Jul-21 11:06   203  59392  in   21.0    26
77    77AG      Aegaeon    2008-Jul-21 11:11   203  12254  in   21.8    61
77    77AT      Atlas      2008-Jul-21 11:23   203  28113  in   22.7   155
77    77AN      Anthe      2008-Jul-21 11:35   203  86705  in   22.5    92
77    77DA      Daphnis    2008-Jul-21 12:00   203  85397  out  24.4   118
77    77PN      PAN        2008-Jul-21 12:04   203  90510  out  24.6   118
78    78PN      PAN        2008-Jul-28 11:25   210  97258  in   23.3   102
78    78PM      Prometheus 2008-Jul-28 12:18   210  24670  in   22.6   160
78    78EP      Epimetheus 2008-Jul-28 13:01   210 107125  out  24.6   113
78*   78TI  T45 Titan      2008-Jul-31 02:13   213   1614  out   6.2    49
79    79MI      Mimas      2008-Aug-04 10:27   217 121889  in   19.0   110
79    79EP      Epimetheus 2008-Aug-04 12:48   217 102118  out  19.9   143
80    80ME      Methone    2008-Aug-11 20:41   224  60452  in   18.4   127
80*   80EN  E4  Enceladus  2008-Aug-11 21:06   224     50  in   17.7   110
80    80MI      Mimas      2008-Aug-11 21:48   224  81522  out  19.1   137
80    80DA      Daphnis    2008-Aug-11 21:55   224 110004  out  20.3   149
81    81TI      Titan      2008-Aug-15 20:47   228 302282  in    5.9    85
81    81PL      Pallene    2008-Aug-19 06:10   232  43655  in   18.4   134
81    81PN      Pan        2008-Aug-19 06:44   232 114580  out  20.5   146
82    82AT      Atlas      2008-Aug-26 14:07   239 107606  in   19.9   149
83    83TI      Titan      2008-Aug-31 13:13   244 603198  in    6.9    97
83    83JA      Janus      2008-Sep-02 23:28   246  86929  in   19.4   156
83    83ME      Methone    2008-Sep-03 00:26   247  90502  out  19.2   128
83    83AN      Anthe      2008-Sep-03 00:34   247 101545  out  19.3   124
84    84AN      Anthe      2008-Sep-10 08:05   254  50318  in   18.3   132
84    84AG      Aegaeon    2008-Sep-10 08:44   254  74412  in   19.2   156
84    84EP      Epimetheus 2008-Sep-10 08:51   254  91304  in   19.6   155
85    85TI      Titan      2008-Sep-15 23:39   259 902601  in    8.7    99
85    85AG      Aegaeon    2008-Sep-17 16:07   261 108852  in   19.2   121
85    85PA      Pandora    2008-Sep-17 16:36   261 106171  in   19.7   144
85    85MI      Mimas      2008-Sep-17 16:49   261  61153  in   18.3   139
85    85CP      Calypso    2008-Sep-17 17:18   261  60877  in   17.5    45
85    85DA      Daphnis    2008-Sep-17 17:55   261 108592  out  20.2   151
86    86TE      Tethys     2008-Sep-25 01:23   269 109903  in   17.5    50
86    86AT      Atlas      2008-Sep-25 01:41   269 105075  in   19.9   150
86    86PN      Pan        2008-Sep-25 02:13   269 105262  in   20.1   157
86    86PL      Pallene    2008-Sep-25 03:11   269 115319  out  19.3   118
87    87TE      Tethys     2008-Oct-02 11:03   276  78710  in   17.6    70
87    87TI      Titan      2008-Oct-03 23:03   277 780532  out   9.3   125
88    88TL      Telesto    2008-Oct-09 18:46   283  67252  in   17.2    22
88    88JA      Janus      2008-Oct-09 18:55   283  89530  in   19.4   151
88*   88EN  E5  Enceladus  2008-Oct-09 19:06   283     25  in   17.7   113
89    89PL      Pallene    2008-Oct-17 02:57   291  28938  in   18.1   141
89    89EP      Epimetheus 2008-Oct-17 04:22   291 118997  out  20.3   136
89    89TI      Titan      2008-Oct-19 05:24   293 397700  out   7.1   125
90    90JA      Janus      2008-Oct-24 09:13   298 108131  in   19.5   132
90    90PN      Pan        2008-Oct-24 10:07   298 105460  in   20.1   156
90    90MI      Mimas      2008-Oct-24 10:24   298  57287  in   18.3   155
91    91ME      Methone    2008-Oct-31 16:02   305 116148  in   18.8   102
91    91PA      Pandora    2008-Oct-31 16:30   305 111471  in   19.8   138
91    91DA      Daphnis    2008-Oct-31 17:13   305 102873  in   19.9   155
91*   91EN  E6  Enceladus  2008-Oct-31 17:14   305    170  in   17.7   110
91    91AT      Atlas      2008-Oct-31 18:10   305 112317  out  20.3   147
91    91EP      Epimetheus 2008-Oct-31 18:35   305 118914  out  20.3   136
91*   91TI  T46 Titan      2008-Nov-03 17:35   308   1105  out   6.3   171
92    92PO      Polydeuces 2008-Nov-08 20:57   313 120992  in   15.3    12
92    92TL      Telesto    2008-Nov-08 21:27   313  67089  in   16.4    85
92    92EN      Enceladus  2008-Nov-08 21:48   313  55275  in   16.9   127
93    93TE      Tethys     2008-Nov-16 20:42   321  57649  in   15.9    41
93*   93TI  T47 Titan      2008-Nov-19 15:56   324   1023  out   6.3    28
94    94HE      Helene     2008-Nov-24 08:27   329  65570  in   14.3    14
94    94TE      Tethys     2008-Nov-24 08:46   329  23542  in   15.2   160
95    95EN      Enceladus  2008-Dec-02 06:36   337 123745  in   15.7   115
95    95CP      Calypso    2008-Dec-02 07:17   337  69569  in   15.2    93
95*   95TI  T48 Titan      2008-Dec-05 14:25   340    961  out   6.3    25
96    96CP      Calypso    2008-Dec-09 18:40   344  74026  out  14.9   147
97*   97TI  T49 Titan      2008-Dec-21 12:59   356    971  out   6.3    83
100   100TI     Titan      2009-Jan-14 09:28   014 704003  out   9.3    25
102   102RH     Rhea       2009-Feb-02 10:44   033  98804  in   10.5    82
102*  102TI T50 Titan      2009-Feb-07 08:50   038    967  out   6.3   136
103   103TI     Titan      2009-Feb-13 18:26   044 707039  in    7.7    98
106   106TI     Titan      2009-Mar-21 11:50   080 991549  in    8.0    63
106*  106TI T51 Titan      2009-Mar-27 04:43   086    963  out   6.3    84
108*  108TI T52 Titan      2009-Apr-04 01:47   094   4147  in    5.8   151
108   108TI     Titan      2009-Apr-11 17:35   101 326143  out   6.0    67
109*  109TI T53 Titan      2009-Apr-20 00:20   110   3599  in    5.8   149
109   109TI     Titan      2009-Apr-27 04:05   117 694947  out   6.3    64
110*  110TI T54 Titan      2009-May-05 22:54   125   3242  in    5.8   146
111*  111TI T55 Titan      2009-May-21 21:26   141    966  in    6.0   142
112*  112TI T56 Titan      2009-Jun-06 20:00   157    968  in    6.0   135
113*  113TI T57 Titan      2009-Jun-22 18:32   173    955  in    6.0   128
114*  114TI T58 Titan      2009-Jul-08 17:04   189    966  in    6.0   120
114   114DI     Dione      2009-Jul-11 03:12   192  86563  out   9.2    62
115*  115TI T59 Titan      2009-Jul-24 15:34   205    956  in    6.0   112
115   115PM     Prometheus 2009-Jul-26 16:18   207 113397  out  10.4    79
115   115PA     Pandora    2009-Jul-26 16:48   207 103589  out  10.1    66
115   115JA     Janus      2009-Jul-26 17:06   207  94090  out   9.9    59
115   115TE     Tethys     2009-Jul-26 18:15   207  68255  out   9.5    89
116*  116TI T60 Titan      2009-Aug-09 14:03   221    971  in    6.0   104
116   116AT     Atlas      2009-Aug-11 11:26   223 118906  in   14.4   117
116   116AN     Anthe      2009-Aug-11 12:19   223  35617  out   8.2    76
117*  117TI T61 Titan      2009-Aug-25 12:51   237    961  in    6.0    86
117   117AG     Aegaeon    2009-Aug-27 09:36   239 107007  in    3.0   105
117   117PL     Pallene    2009-Aug-27 11:03   239 101280  out   7.5   119
117   117TL     Telesto    2009-Aug-27 13:10   239  25193  out   5.8    86
118   118PM     Prometheus 2009-Sep-20 10:09   263 121150  out   2.7    73
118   118DI     Dione      2009-Sep-20 16:50   263  97131  out   9.8    94
118   118TI     Titan      2009-Sep-22 06:53   265 293866  out   4.8   113
119*  119TI T62 Titan      2009-Oct-12 08:36   285   1300  in    6.0    99
119   119RH     Rhea       2009-Oct-13 16:54   286  40408  in    9.0    82
119   119ME     Methone    2009-Oct-14 03:18   287  86115  in   11.8    39
119   119AT     Atlas      2009-Oct-14 04:19   287  70651  in    2.9   114
119   119CP     Calypso    2009-Oct-14 04:33   287 100793  in    7.7   107
119   119MI     Mimas      2009-Oct-14 06:32   287  44050  out   7.8   102
119   119TE     Tethys     2009-Oct-14 10:10   287  85102  out  11.9    76
120   120TI     Titan      2009-Nov-01 23:57   305 978758  in    9.9    73
120   120PL     Pallene    2009-Nov-02 02:07   306  93538  in   12.6    46
120   120EP     Epimetheus 2009-Nov-02 05:26   306 105153  out   8.0     6
120   120CP     Calypso    2009-Nov-02 06:55   306  86773  out   6.9   117
120*  120EN E7  Enceladus  2009-Nov-02 07:41   306    101  out   7.7    90
121   121HE     Helene     2009-Nov-20 22:04   324  82631  in    6.6   105
121*  121EN E8  Enceladus  2009-Nov-21 02:09   325   1598  in    7.8    88
121   121PA     Pandora    2009-Nov-21 04:45   325  59460  in    3.0   103
121   121TI     Titan      2009-Nov-21 08:30   325 965079  out  11.1   138
121   121CP     Calypso    2009-Nov-21 10:19   325  37046  out  10.0    78
121   121RH     Rhea       2009-Nov-21 17:35   325  24452  out   8.7    58
122   122HE     Helene     2009-Dec-09 22:28   343  31762  in    9.6    73
122   122PL     Pallene    2009-Dec-10 03:33   344 111217  in   13.7    47
122*  122TI T63 Titan      2009-Dec-12 01:03   346   4848  out   5.7   124
123   123TE     Tethys     2009-Dec-26 00:35   360  52931  in   11.8    77
123   123AN     Anthe      2009-Dec-26 03:29   360  12097  in    8.3   102
123   123PM     Prometheus 2009-Dec-26 05:01   360  56470  in   10.5    36
123*  123TI T64 Titan      2009-Dec-28 00:16   362    951  out   5.9    86
124   124PA     Pandora    2010-Jan-11 02:08   011  73052  in    7.1   141
124   124ME     Methone    2010-Jan-11 02:25   011  26904  in    8.0   145
124   124EN     Enceladus  2010-Jan-11 06:47   011 105787  out  11.4    98
124   124CP     Calypso    2010-Jan-11 08:17   011 113038  out   8.0   102
124*  124TI T65 Titan      2010-Jan-12 23:10   012   1074  out   5.9    95
125   125TL     Telesto    2010-Jan-27 00:30   027  97067  in    7.2    91
125   125ME     Methone    2010-Jan-27 01:39   027  72100  in   14.0    60
125   125PN     Pan        2010-Jan-27 04:31   027  97942  out  14.8   123
125   125PM     Prometheus 2010-Jan-27 04:36   027  32484  out   7.2   112
125   125AG     Aegaeon    2010-Jan-27 05:18   027  13313  out   7.4    97
125   125DI     Dione      2010-Jan-27 11:47   027  45086  out   8.7   106
125*  125TI T66 Titan      2010-Jan-28 22:28   028   7486  out   5.7    69
126   126CP     Calypso    2010-Feb-13 11:44   044  21304  in   10.1    72
126   126EP     Epimetheus 2010-Feb-13 16:16   044  93253  in   12.4    30
126   126JA     Janus      2010-Feb-13 16:22   044 115085  in   14.4    29
126   126MI     Mimas      2010-Feb-13 17:22   044   9544  out   5.8    99
126   126TE     Tethys     2010-Feb-13 18:15   044 111978  out   8.2   114
126   126TI     Titan      2010-Feb-14 22:46   045 650558  out   8.8    32
127*  127RH R2  Rhea       2010-Mar-02 17:40   061    101  in    8.6    87
127   127PN     Pan        2010-Mar-03 04:38   062 103801  in    6.0   149
127   127CP     Calypso    2010-Mar-03 11:03   062  91765  out  12.8    77
127   127HE     Helene     2010-Mar-03 13:40   062   1852  out   9.1   106
128   128TI     Titan      2010-Mar-19 14:36   078 649737  in    8.9   119
128   128TL     Telesto    2010-Mar-20 16:16   079  92972  in   12.8    72
128   128AT     Atlas      2010-Mar-20 20:47   079 101223  in    9.8   137
128   128PM     Prometheus 2010-Mar-20 21:10   079  40884  in    3.9   101
128   128DA     Daphnis    2010-Mar-20 21:42   079  65180  out   5.6    23
128   128ME     Methone    2010-Mar-20 23:28   079  52091  out  10.9    99
128   128PL     Pallene    2010-Mar-21 00:02   080  70672  out  12.5    94
128   128PO     Polydeuces 2010-Mar-21 04:47   080  30027  out  10.2    70
129*  129TI T67 Titan      2010-Apr-05 15:50   095   7438  in    5.7    73
129*  129DI D2  Dione      2010-Apr-07 05:16   097    506  in    8.4    79
129   129CP     Calypso    2010-Apr-07 08:00   097  97930  in   11.7    69
129   129EP     Epimetheus 2010-Apr-07 12:45   097  61711  in    2.4    89
129   129JA     Janus      2010-Apr-07 13:43   097  74605  out   2.8    40
129   129MI     Mimas      2010-Apr-07 13:46   097  97431  out  10.3   124
129   129TE     Tethys     2010-Apr-07 14:58   097  70783  out   6.4   103
130   130PM     Prometheus 2010-Apr-27 20:38   117  84501  in    1.6   116
130   130TL     Telesto    2010-Apr-27 20:45   117  79610  in    6.7    97
130   130TI     Titan      2010-Apr-27 21:09   117 989121  in   12.5    94
130   130DA     Daphnis    2010-Apr-27 22:41   117  86252  out   1.4    47
130   130PA     Pandora    2010-Apr-27 23:05   117  91534  out   1.8    34
130   130PL     Pallene    2010-Apr-27 23:46   117  71197  out   9.7   112
130   130PN     Pan        2010-Apr-27 23:52   117 113811  out    .5    24
130*  130EN E9  Enceladus  2010-Apr-28 00:10   118    101  out   6.5    93
131*  131EN E10 Enceladus  2010-May-18 06:04   138    437  in    6.5   114
131   131ME     Methone    2010-May-18 08:20   138  18327  in    4.3    75
131   131AN     Anthe      2010-May-18 09:28   138  26439  out   5.4   106
131*  131TI T68 Titan      2010-May-20 03:24   140   1398  out   5.9   112
132   132HE     Helene     2010-Jun-03 00:38   154 114182  in   11.7    85
132   132CP     Calypso    2010-Jun-03 06:10   154 119922  in    8.9    80
132   132PA     Pandora    2010-Jun-03 07:15   154  97162  in   14.1    44
132   132TE     Tethys     2010-Jun-03 12:56   154  52567  out   9.6    99
132   132RH     Rhea       2010-Jun-03 20:31   154  69354  out   8.0   102
132*  132TI T69 Titan      2010-Jun-05 02:26   156   2043  out   5.8    87
133   133RH     Rhea       2010-Jun-18 19:50   169 120596  in   10.7   109
133   133AN     Anthe      2010-Jun-19 04:34   170  99460  in   15.6    74
133   133PN     Pan        2010-Jun-19 07:10   170  29332  out   5.0   115
133   133PO     Polydeuces 2010-Jun-19 14:08   170  97485  out  12.4    79
133*  133TI T70 Titan      2010-Jun-21 01:27   172    878  out   5.9    82
134   134CP     Calypso    2010-Jul-05 00:34   186 114680  in   12.7    70
134   134EN     Enceladus  2010-Jul-05 02:02   186  58192  in   11.4    58
134   134DA     Daphnis    2010-Jul-05 05:01   186  72581  in    9.2    48
134*  134TI T71 Titan      2010-Jul-07 00:22   188   1004  out   5.9    82
135   135PM     Prometheus 2010-Jul-25 03:29   206  70069  out   2.2    70
135   135AT     Atlas      2010-Jul-25 04:31   206  89554  out   2.1    37
136   136TI     Titan      2010-Aug-11 13:35   223 417269  in    4.0    80
136   136DI     Dione      2010-Aug-13 17:44   225 108754  in   11.3    84
136   136CP     Calypso    2010-Aug-13 20:30   225  22699  in    7.4    99
136*  136EN E11 Enceladus  2010-Aug-13 22:30   225   2555  in    6.8    85
136   136EP     Epimetheus 2010-Aug-13 23:20   225 101863  in    3.7   149
136   136AT     Atlas      2010-Aug-14 00:33   226  74167  in    2.1   102
136   136PA     Pandora    2010-Aug-14 01:07   226  67745  out   2.3    78
136   136DA     Daphnis    2010-Aug-14 01:25   226  74366  out   2.0    68
136   136JA     Janus      2010-Aug-14 02:01   226  79714  out   3.3    35
136   136PN     Pan        2010-Aug-14 02:05   226  86698  out   1.8    48
136   136TE     Tethys     2010-Aug-14 06:03   226  38043  out   9.3    91
137   137PO     Polydeuces 2010-Sep-02 18:30   245  66569  in    7.0    94
137   137TL     Telesto    2010-Sep-02 20:43   245  71196  in   10.8    73
137   137AN     Anthe      2010-Sep-03 00:14   246  44821  in    7.5    51
137   137AG     Aegaeon    2010-Sep-03 01:50   246 110696  out   9.3    27
137   137TI     Titan      2010-Sep-03 02:29   246 985306  out  12.5   103
137   137EP     Epimetheus 2010-Sep-03 03:00   246  93386  out   3.9    24
137   137DI     Dione      2010-Sep-03 09:15   246  39035  out   9.2    83
138   138EN     Enceladus  2010-Sep-23 03:07   266 112044  out  12.7   104
138   138CP     Calypso    2010-Sep-23 04:54   266  28937  out   8.4    86
138   138PO     Polydeuces 2010-Sep-23 07:25   266 100343  out  11.2    82
138*  138TI T72 Titan      2010-Sep-24 18:38   267   8178  out   5.7    60
 
 
Solstice (EXTENDED-EXTENDED) MISSION    2010-09-30 to 2017-09-15
                                        2010-273 to 2017-258
-------------------------
 
At the conclusion of the Equinox Mission, Cassini initiated a seven-year
mission extension called the Solstice Mission (SM) to end on 15 September
2017.  This mission continued to explore the features of the Saturnian
system such as the rings, the magnetosphere, Titan, and the icy satellites,
especially Enceladus.  The seven-year extension also allowed for observation
of the northern summer solstice at Saturn to assess seasonal changes.
 
The science objectives required a mix of equatorial and inclined orbits,
thus the mission consisted of six phases: two equatorial phases, three
inclined phases, and the proximal orbits phase.  Equitorial orbits are
necessary for icy moon flybys and ring-free Saturn observations, while
inclined orbits are necessary for rings studies and high-latitude Titan
mapping.  These differing geometries and science objectives would have been
quite costly, in terms of propellant, to interleave (as seen in the PM and
EM), but by segmenting the mission design into phases of similar orbit
inclinations, the tour was able to achieve all science objectives while
efficiently utilizing the available propellant.
 
Phase 1  In-0: T71-T73
This four-month segment consisted of resonant Titan-to-Titan transfers
to decrease the orbit inclination and set up for the first equatorial
phase of SM.  A 5:4 resonant transfer from T71-T72 enabled the E11
flyby and multiple radioscience ring occultations.  The T72-T73 transfer
yielded two UVIS Saturn occultations in the northern hemisphere at mid-
latitudes.
 
The E11 flyby geometry enabled optimal coverage and resolution for thermal
and multispectral imaging of the south pole tier stripes.  This was also
the last opportunity for close-in visual imaging of the tiger stripes
before the south pole entered total darkness.
 
Note that T71 and T72 actually occurred during the last three months of EM
(aka the 'bridge').  The original EM tour was designed through June 2010 and
the final three months of EM were designed at the same time as the SM.
 
Phase 2  Eq-1: T73-T83
The 18-month equatorial phase was designed to enable unobstructed (by the
rings) Saturn observations, occultations, and icy flybys.  During this
phase, the orbit apoapsis was rotated towards noon to enable high-
latitude Saturn occultations. By rotating earlier in local solar time, an
optimal spacecraft orbit was set up for capturing high-priority ring and
Saturn occultations in the next phase.
 
Many of the Titan flybys during this phase had low solar phase groundtracks
which were ideal for ISS and VIMS observations.  T75 passed through Titan's
magnetospheric wake which provided excellent MAPS observations.  The T78
flyby provided mid-latitude UVIS and RSS Titan occultations at both ingres
and egress. There were also two very high targeted Titan flybys in this phase,
T80 and T81, with a ~30,000 km flyby altitude. These two flybys were ideal for
ISS imaging of the moon's surface.  With the exception of T83, all Titan
flybys in Eq-1 were above 1400 km in altitude.  At 1400 km and greater
altitudes, Titan's atmospheric effects on the spacecraft are not a concern
and RCS thruster control was not needed. Thus, nearly two years elapsed
between low Titan flybys that required RCS thruster control.
 
Ten icy flybys, eight of which were Enceladus flybys, occurred during Eq-1.
E12 and E13 were both northern hemisphere flybys of Enceladus at an altitude
of 50 km.  These are the only two Enceladus flybys in SM that did not provide
coverage of the moon's southern hemisphere.  R3, a 75 km flyby of Rhea, was
designed to provide measurements of the interplanetary meteoroid mass flux
coming into the Saturn system.  E14 (100 km), E17 (75 km), and E18 (75 km)
passed beneath the south pole of Enceladus for in-situ sampling of the plumes.
E15, a 1236 km altitude flyby, achieved the first and only triple UVIS stellar
occultation of the plume in the Cassini mission. The three stars passed
horizontally behind the plume at varying distances from the moon's surface
which enabled characterization of the plume in two dimensions. The E16 flyby
(500 km) was optimized for RADAR and provided the first synthetic aperture
radar images of the moon.  E19 (75 km) was designed as a gravity flyby for
radio science and passed over the moon's south pole.  D3, a 100 km altitude
flyby of Dione, was designed to pass through the wake region in order to
address key MAPS science objectives about geologic activity on Dione.
 
D3 and T79 was a double flyby; the only one to occur in SM.  A double flyby
is a back-to-back flyby of Titan and another icy satellite (in this case
Dione) without any maneuvers between the flybys.  Only one of the flybys can
be targeted and the actual trajectory at the time of the maneuver design
determines which body will be targeted.  For the D3-T79 double flyby, T79
was targeted.
 
Phase 3  In-1: T83-T110
The first inclined phase spans from 22 May 2012 - 16 March 2015. The phase is
further subdivided into sub-phases (In-1A, In-1B, and In-1C) based upon the
the unique geometries of each sub-phase.
 
In-1A: T83 - T91
In the first In-1 sub-phase, short period, resonant orbits increase inclina-
tion from 0deg - 61.7deg. The inclined orbits offer ample opportunities for
ring and Saturn occultations, Titan flybys, and ring observations.
 
There are ring and/or Saturn occultations on all Titan-to-Titan transfers
(revs 167-190) during this phase providing ample RSS and UVIS occultation
opportunities.  By mid to late 2013, further atmospheric occultations are
precluded at all latitudes except near Saturn's equator because the rings
encompass the planet's poles as viewed from Earth.
 
Titan surface coverage consists mostly of low altitude (ideal for RADAR and
in-situ atmospheric measurements), low solar phase (ideal for high-resolution
ORS imaging) groundtracks covering latitudes from the equator to the north
pole. The T88 flyby (1014 km) will provide coverage of the Huygens landing
site. T89 (1978 km) was designed as a radio science gravity flyby.
 
R4, a 997 km flyby of Rhea, is the only targeted icy satellite flyby to occur
on an inclined rev.  The flyby was designed for RSS gravity measurements.
 
In-1B: T91 - T101
The In-1B sub-phase was designed to provide low phase, northern and southern
Titan coverage and multiple inclined passages through Saturn's magnetotail
region.  A series of longer period, resonant orbits reduces inclination
from 61.7deg to 40.7deg for this sub-phase.
 
The T91 - T95 groundtracks provide more northern hemisphere coverage at low
altitude and a range of latitudes. T96 passes directly over Ontario Lacus in
the southern hemisphere; this is a high priority science target.  The T95
to T96 transfer causes periapse to move from just before Titan to just
after Titan (e.g. switches from outbound to inbound).  This geometry places
apoapsis near Saturn's equitorial plane to enable distance magnetotail
crossings.  The T100 to T101 transfer implements an inbound to outbound
pi-transfer to set up the orbit orientation needed for the final phases of
the mission.  The exact location of the magnetotail is unpredictable, but
it is known to reside near the Sun-Saturn line at large distances from
the planet near midnight LST. Inclined orbits with apoapsis near midnight
LST are preferred over equatorial orbits since the bounding declination of
the magnetotail can vary.  Six magnetotail passages at a variety of
distances ranging in duration from 60 - 215 hours will occur during this
subphase.
 
In-1C: T101 - T110
The overall theme of the third In-1 sub-phase is Titan occultations and
inclination reduction.  However, the first three Titan flybys (T101 - T103)
increase inclination instead of decreasing in order to achieve three UVIS
and RSS Titan occultations. These occultations enable atmospheric studies
of Titan's polar regions; the groundtracks are located over Titan's south-
ern hemisphere at high solar phase. The remaining flybys in the sub-phase
(T104 - T109) decrease orbit inclination to set up for the next phase.
The groundtracks for T104 - T109 are all over the northern hemisphere at
low solar phase.
 
Phase 4  Eq-2: T110-T114
The fourth phase which was the second equatorial phase of the SM spans from
16 March 2015 - 13 November 2015.  This phase extends the temporal baseline
for ring-free Saturn observations, incorporates two close flybys of both
Enceladus and Dione, and a distant flyby of Enceladus.  Orbit apoapsis is
rotated later in LST to set up the node for the inclined proximal orbits at
end of mission.
 
E21 (50 km) was the final passage through Enceladus' plumes in SM and the
last opportunity for MAPS in-situ measurements of the plumes.  E20 (1840 km)
was allocated for ORS observations.  MAPS observations were planned for D4
(516 km) and RSS gravity measurements were planned for D5 (475 km).  The
T110 groundtrack was planned for ORS observations of the northern lakes
region.  T111 - T113 groundtracks lie near Saturn's equator.
 
Phase 5  In-2: T114-T126
In In-2, inclination is gradually increased from near zero to 63.8deg and
periapse distance is reduced to just outside the F-ring.  These orbits set up
the conditions necessary to enable the proximal orbits, but they are also
ideal for ring observations and close flybys of the innermost, small icy
moons.
 
Phase 6  Proximal Orbits Phase
In anticipation of possible planetary protection requirements, the project
decided that the SM design must preclude the possibility of future impact
with any of the large icy moons such as Enceladus.  A variety of end-of-
mission scenarios were considered, but one option, a series of close-in
orbits culminating with impact into Saturn, stood out from the others.
Saturn impact ultimately vaporizes the spacecraft in the planet's atmos-
sphere precluding any further contact with other bodies in Saturn system
and the close-in orbits (a.k.a. proximal orbits) enable very unique science
opportunities. This option, strongly favored by the project and the outer
outer planets science community, was incorporated into the SM design.
 
Beginning in April 2017, Cassini dove through the approximately 2,000
kilometer-wide gap between Saturn and its rings. No other spacecraft had
ever explored this unique region.
 
A final close flyby of the moon Titan on April 22 used the moon's gravity
to reshape Cassini's trajectory so that the spacecraft leapt over the
planet's icy rings to pass between the rings and Saturn. During 22 such
passes over about five months, the spacecraft's altitude above Saturn's
clouds varied from about 1,600 to 4,000 kilometers thanks to occasional
distant passes by Titan that shifted the closest approach distance.  At
times, Cassini skirted the very inner edge of the rings; at other times,
it skimmed the outer edges of the atmosphere.  During its final five
orbits, its orbit passed through Saturn's uppermost atmosphere, before
finally plunging directly into the planet on Sept. 15, 2017.
 
 
                   Solstice Mission Sequence Boundaries
                   ------------------------------------
 
               Sequence  Rev     Epoch (SCET)     DOY   Duration
                                                        In days
               --------  ---  -----------------   ---   --------
               S64       139  2010-Oct-11 04:17   284   45
               S65       141  2010-Nov-24 19:35   328   54
               S66       143  2011-Jan-17 08:42   017   49
               S67       146  2011-Mar-07 13:02   066   49
               S68       147  2011-Apr-25 16:03   115   69
               S69       150  2011-Jul-03 11:10   184   66
               S70       153  2011-Sep-07 00:48   250   70
               S71       157  2011-Nov-16 03:02   320   70
               S72       160  2012-Jan-24 22:55   024   73
               S73       164  2012-Apr-06 11:47   097   73
               S74       168  2012-Jun-18 22:58   170   67
               S75       171  2012-Aug-24 18;56   237   70
               S76       174  2012-Nov-02 14:30   307   72
               S77       179  2013-Jan-13 17:51   013   72
               S78       184  2013-Mar-26 13:15   085   72
               S79       191  2013-Jun-07 00:45   158   68
               S80       196  2013-Aug-14 09:51   226   70
               S81       198  2013-Oct-22 23:15   295   66
               S82       200  2013-Dec-28 01:47   362   76
               S83       202  2014-Mar-13 21:12   072   72
               S84       204  2014-May-24 10:01   144   68
               S85       206  2014-Jul-31 05:09   212   67
               S86       209  2014-Oct-06 01:01   279   72
               S87       210  2014-Dec-17 03:15   351   67
               S88       212  2015-Feb-21 16:52   052   69
               S89       215  2015-May-01 18:45   121   73
               S90       218  2015-Jul-13 13:42   194   70
               S91       222  2015-Sep-21 02:48   264   65
               S92       226  2015-Nov-25 06:08   329   74
               S93       231  2016-Feb-07 00:48   038   72
               S94       235  2016-Apr-18 18:43   109   69
               S95       237  2016-Jun-26 15:44   178   74
               S96       242  2016-Sep-08 10:36   252   76
               S97       249  2016-Nov-23 05:43   328   72
               S98       259  2017-Feb-03 07:05   034   70
               S99       269  2017-Apr-14 14:55   104   41
               S100      276  2017-May-25 08:57   145   46
               S101      283  2017-Jul-10 01:14   191   67
               End of Mission 2017-Sep-15 10:32   258
 
 
 
                    Solstice Mission Satellite Encounter
                    ------------------------------------
 
*Targeted fly-by
 
Rev   Name       Satellite  Epoch (SCET)        DOY    Alt   in/  Speed Phase
                                                       km    out  km/s   deg
----  ---------- ---------  ----------------    ---    ---   ---  -----  ----
139   139TI      Titan      2010-Oct-14 17:06   287  172784  in   4.8    80
139   139PO      Polydeuces 2010-Oct-16 10:46   289  116005  in  10.8    73
139   139MI      Mimas      2010-Oct-16 17:31   289   70140  in   2.4   101
139   139PL      Pallene    2010-Oct-16 17:57   289   36109  in   3.5    82
139   139TL      Telesto    2010-Oct-16 18:05   289   48493  out  5.5    99
139   139ME      Methone    2010-Oct-16 18:38   289  105266  out  5.8    23
139   139AG      Aegaeon    2010-Oct-16 19:17   289   96382  out  1.9    40
139   139DI      Dione      2010-Oct-17 01:04   290   31419  out  6.8    91
139   139RH      Rhea       2010-Oct-17 06:48   290   38486  out  7.1   100
140   140DI      Dione      2010-Nov-09 10:56   313   99850  in  10.2    74
140   140EN      Enceladus  2010-Nov-09 16:22   313   44990  in   6.5    50
140*  140TI T73  Titan      2010-Nov-11 13:37   315    7926  out  5.6   121
141   141HY      Hyperion   2010-Nov-28 03:29   332   71868  in   4.9    73
141   141TI      Titan      2010-Nov-29 06:25   333  926131  in  10.5   130
141   141AT      Atlas      2010-Nov-30 07:17   334  114376  in    .7   144
141   141JA      Janus      2010-Nov-30 11:12   334   95615  out  2.4    29
141*  141EN E12  Enceladus  2010-Nov-30 11:53   334      46  out  6.3    78
142   142TI      Titan      2010-Dec-16 19:57   350  848609  in   3.6    91
142   142TI      Titan      2010-Dec-20 12:16   354  893286  in   6.3    46
142   142DI      Dione      2010-Dec-20 16:50   354  100150  in   5.9    87
142   142PN      Pan        2010-Dec-20 20:36   354  115573  in    .4   141
142   142PA      Pandora    2010-Dec-20 20:42   354  109126  in   1.1   143
142   142DA      Daphnis    2010-Dec-20 23:35   354   85087  out  1.3    61
142   142AN      Anthe      2010-Dec-20 23:46   354   33753  out  5.6   115
142*  142EN E13  Enceladus  2010-Dec-21 01:08   355      48  out  6.2    89
143   143PA      Pandora    2011-Jan-10 14:43   010   94724  in   1.5   133
143   143AN      Anthe      2011-Jan-10 17:10   010   33294  out  5.6   115
143   143ME      Methone    2011-Jan-10 17:22   010   85748  out  9.4   127
143   143TI      Titan      2011-Jan-11 03:18   011  838661  out  5.9   140
143*  143RH R3   Rhea       2011-Jan-11 04:53   011      71  out  8.0   101
143   143TI      Titan      2011-Jan-14 09:20   014  772712  out  3.6    96
144   144EP      Epimetheus 2011-Jan-31 02:14   031   68444  in   2.5   115
144   144CP      Calypso    2011-Jan-31 03:48   031   77730  out  6.6    94
144   144PM      Prometheus 2011-Jan-31 04:46   031  105560  out  1.1    33
144   144EN      Enceladus  2011-Jan-31 05:51   031   60154  out  9.6   111
144   144HE      Helene     2011-Jan-31 10:17   031   27648  out  7.5    92
145*  145TI T74  Titan      2011-Feb-18 16:04   049    3651  in   5.8    62
145   145EN      Enceladus  2011-Feb-20 14:02   051   67917  out  4.2   134
145   145PL      Pallene    2011-Feb-20 14:48   051   92214  out  2.7    56
145   145TE      Tethys     2011-Feb-20 17:12   051   47673  out  6.7   124
146   146TL      Telesto    2011-Mar-20 12:14   079   10033  out  4.3    83
147   147AG      Aegaeon    2011-Apr-17 09:12   107  118151  in    .6   109
147   147HE      Helene     2011-Apr-17 13:39   107   69499  out  5.2    81
147*  147TI T75  Titan      2011-Apr-19 05:00   109   10053  out  5.6   101
148*  148TI T76  Titan      2011-May-08 22:53   128    1873  in   5.9    47
149   149HE      Helene     2011-Jun-18 19:31   169    6953  in   4.6   102
149   149TL      Telesto    2011-Jun-18 23:40   169   61987  in   2.8   108
149*  149TI T77  Titan      2011-Jun-20 18:32   171    1359  out  5.9    73
150   150TI      Titan      2011-Jul-09 06:59   190  627640  in   8.8   168
150   150HE      Helene     2011-Jul-10 10:46   191   92961  in   5.6    40
150   150JA      Janus      2011-Jul-10 15:44   191   92986  in   1.0   141
150   150PN      Pan        2011-Jul-10 15:50   191  110204  in   0.1   138
150   150PM      Prometheus 2011-Jul-10 17:15   191  113123  out  0.2   108
151   151HE      Helene     2011-Aug-01 00:39   213   76521  in   9.6   129
151   151TI      Titan      2011-Aug-01 07:08   213  983662  in  11.2    37
151   151TL      Telesto    2011-Aug-01 08:10   213   50585  in   5.6    45
151   151ME      Methone    2011-Aug-01 08:41   213   97388  out  5.8    81
151   151RH      Rhea       2011-Aug-01 21:01   213    5887  out  7.7   131
152   152EP      Epimetheus 2011-Aug-23 03:17   235   95754  in   1.1   153
152   152AT      Atlas      2011-Aug-23 05:29   235  118657  out  0.1   104
152   152TI      Titan      2011-Aug-24 12:10   236  585296  out  8.5   101
152   152HY      Hyperion   2011-Aug-25 16:47   237   24639  out  5.1   107
153*  153TI T78  Titan      2011-Sep-12 02:50   255    5821  in   5.8   159
153   153RH      Rhea       2011-Sep-13 10:34   256   25421  in   8.7   141
153   153TE      Tethys     2011-Sep-13 18:18   256   32809  in   7.3    53
153   153PA      Pandora    2011-Sep-13 22:36   256   58092  in   2.7   154
153   153EN      Enceladus  2011-Sep-13 22:49   256   42226  in   6.3    51
153   153JA      Janus      2011-Sep-13 23:09   256   45589  out  3.5   109
153   153ME      Methone    2011-Sep-14 00:48   257  119842  out 14.0   159
153   153PL      Pallene    2011-Sep-14 01:21   257   25937  out  8.2   152
153   153TL      Telesto    2011-Sep-14 03:52   257   23372  out  7.7    53
153   153HY      Hyperion   2011-Sep-16 13:23   259   58120  out  4.8    84
154   154TI      Titan      2011-Sep-28 03:22   271  679827  in   3.7    43
154   154TI      Titan      2011-Sep-30 17:19   273  835952  in   3.1    12
154*  154EN E14  Enceladus  2011-Oct-01 13:52   274      98  in   7.4   102
154   154EP      Epimetheus 2011-Oct-01 17:31   274   67933  out  4.2    81
154   154CP      Calypso    2011-Oct-01 21:46   274  124823  out 13.3   136
155   155TL      Telesto    2011-Oct-19 07:36   292   25578  in   7.5    53
155*  155EN E15  Enceladus  2011-Oct-19 09:22   292    1230  in   7.5   118
155   155AN      Anthe      2011-Oct-19 14:15   292   52149  out  9.1   158
156*  156EN E16  Enceladus  2011-Nov-06 04:58   310     497  in   7.4    73
156   156ME      Methone    2011-Nov-06 06:37   310   19410  in   6.3   107
156   156PA      Pandora    2011-Nov-06 08:58   310   76337  out  3.2    81
156   156CP      Calypso    2011-Nov-06 10:00   310   86243  out  6.9    55
157   157HE      Helene     2011-Nov-23 21:05   327  103223  in  11.4   134
157   157EN      Enceladus  2011-Nov-24 03:03   328   34542  in   6.2    52
157   157EP      Epimetheus 2011-Nov-24 04:44   328   51227  out  3.5   103
157   157TI      Titan      2011-Nov-24 15:00   328  863138  out  6.1    97
157   157TI      Titan      2011-Nov-27 23:51   331  748405  out  3.8    52
158   158CP      Calypso    2011-Dec-12 00:25   346   91799  in   7.1    42
158   158EN      Enceladus  2011-Dec-12 04:26   346   19910  out  6.5    41
158   158TE      Tethys     2011-Dec-12 07:04   346   60604  out 10.8   139
158*  158DI D3   Dione      2011-Dec-12 09:39   346     101  out  8.7    49
158*  158TI T79  Titan      2011-Dec-13 20:11   347    3583  out  5.8   100
159*  159TI T80  Titan      2012-Jan-02 15:13   002   29514  in   5.5    76
159   159HE      Helene     2012-Jan-04 05:37   004   42114  in   8.1   112
159   159MI      Mimas      2012-Jan-04 11:16   004  103446  in   2.0   161
159   159JA      Janus      2012-Jan-04 12:21   004  117839  in   0.2   135
160*  160TI T81  Titan      2012-Jan-30 13:39   030   31130  out  5.4    96
161*  161TI T82  Titan      2012-Feb-19 08:43   050    3803  in   5.8   143
161   161PO      Polydeuces 2012-Feb-20 22:32   051   90779  in   6.3    59
161   161TL      Telesto    2012-Feb-21 01:14   052   55046  in   6.6    64
161   161EN      Enceladus  2012-Feb-21 02:00   052   46668  in  10.1   100
161   161PL      Pallene    2012-Feb-21 02:55   052   69229  in  11.0    92
161   161PA      Pandora    2012-Feb-21 05:51   052   60382  out  2.9    87
161   161DI      Dione      2012-Feb-21 11:09   052  119727  out  6.0    74
161   161RH      Rhea       2012-Feb-21 17:16   052  100497  out  9.9   104
162   162TI      Titan      2012-Mar-06 07:50   066  717758  in   3.7    56
162   162HY      Hyperion   2012-Mar-08 01:31   068  104077  in   5.5   148
162   162TI      Titan      2012-Mar-09 10:13   069  863994  in   4.5    16
162   162HE      Helene     2012-Mar-09 18:48   069  109912  in  11.6   121
162   162EN      Enceladus  2012-Mar-09 23:22   069    9072  in   7.0    75
162   162PM      Prometheus 2012-Mar-10 02:29   070   58060  out  2.5   102
162   162EP      Epimetheus 2012-Mar-10 03:29   070  111589  out  7.0    49
162   162CP      Calypso    2012-Mar-10 06:35   070   47399  out  6.8    63
162   162RH      Rhea       2012-Mar-10 15:02   070   41938  out  7.5    73
163   163PO      Polydeuces 2012-Mar-27 15:53   087  118100  in   6.0    53
163*  163EN E17  Enceladus  2012-Mar-27 18:30   087      73  in   7.5   105
163   163PM      Prometheus 2012-Mar-27 21:01   087   62911  in   2.5   145
163   163JA      Janus      2012-Mar-27 21:33   087   43863  out  3.2   116
163   163DI      Dione      2012-Mar-28 05:06   088   43995  out  7.5    64
164   164HE      Helene     2012-Apr-14 09:36   105  104851  in  11.5   121
164   164CP      Calypso    2012-Apr-14 12:44   105   48758  in   6.7    62
164*  164EN E18  Enceladus  2012-Apr-14 14:01   105      74  in   7.5   104
164   164AN      Anthe      2012-Apr-14 15:08   105   76692  in  10.9    88
164   164PM      Prometheus 2012-Apr-14 15:15   105   97618  in   2.4   166
164   164PA      Pandora    2012-Apr-14 15:43   105   87229  in   3.3   167
164   164TI      Titan      2012-Apr-14 18:44   105  995032  out 12.5    78
164   164TE      Tethys     2012-Apr-14 22:05   105    9059  out  8.7   126
164   164HY      Hyperion   2012-Apr-16 21:30   107  123186  out  5.7    87
165   165PO      Polydeuces 2012-May-02 06:55   123  117979  in   6.0    53
165*  165EN E19  Enceladus  2012-May-02 09:31   123      73  in   7.5   100
165   165AT      Atlas      2012-May-02 13:53   123   84793  out  2.5    65
165   165AN      Anthe      2012-May-02 14:29   123  105864  out 13.0   147
165   165DI      Dione      2012-May-02 20:13   123    8090  out  8.5    65
165   165TI      Titan      2012-May-03 01:17   124  834460  out  5.2   111
165   165TI      Titan      2012-May-06 03:41   127  699995  out  3.7    65
166   166TE      Tethys     2012-May-20 02:15   141   53804  in   6.6    62
166   166EN      Enceladus  2012-May-20 03:03   141   70351  in  11.4   102
166   166DA      Daphnis    2012-May-20 03:59   141  114334  in   1.4   161
166   166PM      Prometheus 2012-May-20 04:32   141  100898  in   2.6   164
166   166PN      Pan        2012-May-20 06:03   141   63580  in   2.2   137
166   166ME      Methone    2012-May-20 06:56   141    1870  out  5.1   127
166   166MI      Mimas      2012-May-20 08:04   141  113337  out 13.7   148
166   166PL      Pallene    2012-May-20 08:56   141   75160  out 11.3   142
166   166TL      Telesto    2012-May-20 11:30   141   11015  out  8.9   128
166*  166TI T83  Titan      2012-May-22 01:10   143     954  out  5.9    71
167   167PL      Pallene    2012-Jun-05 02:32   157   74864  in  12.1    93
167   167PM      Prometheus 2012-Jun-05 03:01   157   99867  in   5.7   161
167   167PA      Pandora    2012-Jun-05 04:22   157   49954  in   5.5   126
167   167MI      Mimas      2012-Jun-05 05:07   157   43513  out  7.2   114
167   167DA      Daphnis    2012-Jun-05 05:13   157   76823  out  7.1    73
167   167AT      Atlas      2012-Jun-05 05:34   157  100597  out  8.7    60
167*  167TI T84  Titan      2012-Jun-07 00:07   159     959  out  5.9    75
168   168TI      Titan      2012-Jun-27 06:59   179  458637  in   5.6    97
168   168TE      Tethys     2012-Jun-28 21:10   180   67758  in   7.6    80
169   169HE      Helene     2012-Jul-22 21:19   204  110799  in   6.0    92
169*  169TI T85  Titan      2012-Jul-24 20:03   206    1012  out  5.9    58
170   170TL      Telesto    2012-Aug-12 21:44   225   93738  in   7.9   101
171   171TI      Titan      2012-Sep-02 19:41   246  784505  in   7.2    39
172*  172TI T86  Titan      2012-Sep-26 14:35   270     956  out  5.9    47
174*  174TI T87  Titan      2012-Nov-13 10:22   318     974  out  5.9    68
175*  175TI T88  Titan      2012-Nov-29 08:56   334    1015  out  5.9    44
176   176TI      Titan      2012-Dec-09 23:15   344  906834  in   8.1    85
176   176TI      Titan      2012-Dec-15 13:50   350  899660  out  4.6   103
177   177TI      Titan      2012-Dec-22 17:27   357  714550  in   8.1    31
177   177RH      Rhea       2012-Dec-22 23:06   357   22888  in   9.1    43
181*  181TI T89  Titan      2013-Feb-17 01:56   048    1978  out  5.8    35
182   182TI      Titan      2013-Feb-25 17:26   056  707432  in   8.4    41
183*  183RH R4   Rhea       2013-Mar-09 18:17   068     997  in   9.3   138
185*  185TI T90  Titan      2013-Apr-05 21:43   095    1400  out  5.8    69
186   186TI      Titan      2013-Apr-12 03:48   102  939354  in  10.1    50
186   186PO      Polydeuces 2013-Apr-12 07:44   102  115649  in  11.5   126
188   188TI      Titan      2013-May-01 13:43   121  900117  in  10.7    59
189   189TI      Titan      2013-May-07 16:25   127  908118  in   6.3   127
190*  190TI T91  Titan      2013-May-23 17:32   143     970  out  5.9    50
191   191TI      Titan      2013-May-31 13:54   151  568244  in   7.6    27
194*  194TI T92  Titan      2013-Jul-10 13:21   191     964  out  5.9    46
195   195TI      Titan      2013-Jul-20 02:46   201  889769  in   6.2   111
195*  195TI T93  Titan      2013-Jul-26 11:56   207    1399  out  5.8    58
197   197TI      Titan      2013-Sep-04 21:25   247  531191  in   4.7   126
197*  197TI T94  Titan      2013-Sep-12 07:43   255    1397  out  5.8    21
198*  198TI T95  Titan      2013-Oct-14 04:56   287     961  out  5.9    25
199*  199TI T96  Titan      2013-Dec-01 00:41   335    1400  in   5.8    50
200*  200TI T97  Titan      2014-Jan-01 21:59   001    1400  in   5.8    35
200   200TI      Titan      2014-Jan-09 10:01   009  810262  out  4.3   169
201*  201TI T98  Titan      2014-Feb-02 19:12   033    1236  in   5.9    44
201   201TI      Titan      2014-Feb-10 13:04   041  887458  out  4.1   134
202*  202TI T99  Titan      2014-Mar-06 16:26   065    1500  in   5.8    53
203*  203TI T100 Titan      2014-Apr-07 13:41   097     963  in   5.9    60
204*  204TI T101 Titan      2014-May-17 16:12   137    2992  out  5.7   158
205*  205TI T102 Titan      2014-Jun-18 13:28   169    3659  out  5.6   165
206*  206TI T103 Titan      2014-Jul-20 10:40   201    5103  out  5.6   171
207   207TI      Titan      2014-Aug-13 12:08   225  958958  in   4.2    34
207*  207TI T104 Titan      2014-Aug-21 08:09   233     964  out  5.8    12
208*  208TI T105 Titan      2014-Sep-22 05:23   265    1401  out  5.8    21
209*  209TI T106 Titan      2014-Oct-24 02:40   297    1013  out  5.8    31
210*  210TI T107 Titan      2014-Dec-10 22:26   344     980  out  5.8    56
211*  211TI T108 Titan      2015-Jan-11 19:48   011     970  out  5.8    46
212   212RH      Rhea       2015-Feb-10 06:45   041   46803  in   5.3   108
212*  212TI T109 Titan      2015-Feb-12 17:08   043    1200  out  5.8    55
213   213HE      Helene     2015-Mar-14 11:08   073   58276  in   5.4    80
213   213CP      Calypso    2015-Mar-14 15:27   073  101483  in   3.3    84
213*  213TI T110 Titan      2015-Mar-16 14:29   075    2275  out  5.7    70
214   214TI      Titan      2015-Apr-11 17:55   101  899005  out  8.8   132
214   214TE      Tethys     2015-Apr-11 17:57   101   52822  out  3.5    32
214   214DI      Dione      2015-Apr-11 23:21   101  110065  out  8.0    28
215*  215TI T111 Titan      2015-May-07 22:50   127    2722  in   5.7    34
215   215AG      Aegaeon    2015-May-09 16:51   129   92544  in   1.6    28
215   215AN      Anthe      2015-May-09 17:28   129  107953  in   6.2    25
215   215DA      Daphnis    2015-May-09 17:28   129  113302  in   0.1    44
215   215TL      Telesto    2015-May-09 17:53   129   46446  in   5.3   126
215   215PO      Polydeuces 2015-May-10 01:12   130   33996  out  6.6   130
216   216TI      Titan      2015-May-28 10:24   148  942022  in   9.3   147
216   216TL      Telesto    2015-May-28 14:09   148   44729  in   5.3   127
216   216HY      Hyperion   2015-May-31 13:35   151   34351  out  4.3    70
217   217PO      Polydeuces 2015-Jun-16 05:25   167   34811  in   6.6   121
217   217ME      Methone    2015-Jun-16 11:39   167  109540  in   5.3    26
217   217PN      Pan        2015-Jun-16 11:56   167  118206  in   0.3    41
217   217AT      Atlas      2015-Jun-16 12:29   167  111250  in   0.0    49
217   217JA      Janus      2015-Jun-16 13:37   167  101445  out  0.8    72
217   217TL      Telesto    2015-Jun-16 13:39   167   44153  out  5.3   127
217   217TI      Titan      2015-Jun-16 18:23   167  957886  out  8.8    97
217*  217DI D4   Dione      2015-Jun-16 20:11   167     517  out  7.3    58
218   218PN      Pan        2015-Jul-05 11:47   186  115938  out  0.3    63
218   218TL      Telesto    2015-Jul-05 14:53   186   14145  out  5.8   127
218*  218TI T112 Titan      2015-Jul-07 08:09   188   10953  out  5.6    78
219   219TI      Titan      2015-Jul-25 22:36   206  729190  in   9.2    31
219   219DI      Dione      2015-Jul-27 00:56   208   60599  in   5.1   120
219   219EN      Enceladus  2015-Jul-27 06:18   208  111559  out  6.7    24
220*  220DI D5   Dione      2015-Aug-17 18:33   229     479  in   6.4    67
220   220TE      Tethys     2015-Aug-17 21:56   229   41887  in   6.3    82
220   220EN      Enceladus  2015-Aug-18 01:17   230   53164  in   3.3    78
220   220ME      Methone    2015-Aug-18 01:34   230   89816  out  1.6    61
220   220TI      Titan      2015-Aug-18 01:52   230  960420  out 10.1   120
220   220HE      Helene     2015-Aug-18 08:33   230  113517  out  9.4    46
221   221DI      Dione      2015-Sep-08 14:32   251   41991  in   7.6    67
221   221HE      Helene     2015-Sep-09 04:52   252   82944  out  8.6    45
221   221TI      Titan      2015-Sep-10 06:21   253  706971  out  9.1    89
222*  222TI T113 Titan      2015-Sep-28 21:37   271    1035  in   5.8    42
222   222DI      Dione      2015-Sep-30 08:40   273   40807  in  10.1    63
222   222CP      Calypso    2015-Sep-30 11:04   273   43845  in  10.8    72
222   222AN      Anthe      2015-Sep-30 13:58   273   95411  in  13.9    89
222   222MI      Mimas      2015-Sep-30 14:12   273   64775  in  11.8    93
222   222TE      Tethys     2015-Sep-30 16:58   273  117361  out  8.5   106
222   222AG      Aegaeon    2015-Sep-30 17:34   273   79798  out 12.1    40
222   222TL      Telesto    2015-Sep-30 21:15   273  117978  out 13.7    68
222   222RH      Rhea       2015-Oct-01 04:25   274   57868  out  9.3    85
223   223TI      Titan      2015-Oct-13 12:42   286  826287  in  10.1    31
223   223PO      Polydeuces 2015-Oct-14 06:50   287  115894  in  12.3    61
223*  223EN E20  Enceladus  2015-Oct-14 10:41   287    1844  in   8.5    63
223   223ME      Methone    2015-Oct-14 11:53   287   40002  in   9.9    89
223   223PM      Prometheus 2015-Oct-14 13:43   287  121322  in  12.7    25
223   223HE      Helene     2015-Oct-14 20:59   287  117069  out  6.0   102
224   224PO      Polydeuces 2015-Oct-28 04:11   301   84407  in   7.0   116
224   224TL      Telesto    2015-Oct-28 07:18   301   59627  in   6.9   113
224   224DA      Daphnis    2015-Oct-28 11:26   301   70258  in   6.0    26
224   224PN      Pan        2015-Oct-28 12:32   301   64923  out  4.7   116
224*  224EN E21  Enceladus  2015-Oct-28 15:22   301      49  out  8.5   118
224   224HE      Helene     2015-Oct-28 19:25   301   78802  out 11.1    77
224   224TI      Titan      2015-Oct-29 14:04   302  800211  out 10.0   112
225   225CP      Calypso    2015-Nov-11 07:20   315  104426  in   7.5   122
225   225PN      Pan        2015-Nov-11 07:22   315  111449  in   3.6    29
225   225PA      Pandora    2015-Nov-11 09:30   315  109216  out 12.4   118
225   225AN      Anthe      2015-Nov-11 11:47   315  107479  out 14.8    50
225   225TE      Tethys     2015-Nov-11 14:42   315    8407  out  8.8   100
225*  225TI T114 Titan      2015-Nov-13 05:46   317   11927  out  5.5    92
226   226TE      Tethys     2015-Nov-23 21:57   327   17532  in   9.2   113
226   226AT      Atlas      2015-Nov-24 02:33   328  103602  in  16.4   102
226   226DA      Daphnis    2015-Nov-24 02:34   328   80737  in  13.5   104
226   226ME      Methone    2015-Nov-24 05:45   328   37755  out 11.6    56
226   226TI      Titan      2015-Nov-30 05:56   334  753119  out  4.0   113
227   227EP      Epimetheus 2015-Dec-06 20:38   340    2641  out  5.5    65
227   227AT      Atlas      2015-Dec-06 20:56   340   22064  out  6.0    45
227   227PM      Prometheus 2015-Dec-06 21:04   340   23274  out  6.6    44
228   228TI      Titan      2015-Dec-17 13:23   351  148599  in   4.7   130
228   228AG      Aegaeon    2015-Dec-19 12:59   353    2527  in   6.9    84
228   228AN      Anthe      2015-Dec-19 13:16   353   38895  in   7.3   114
228*  228EN E22  Enceladus  2015-Dec-19 17:49   353    4998  out  9.5   114
228   228CP      Calypso    2015-Dec-19 19:10   353   91835  out 13.4    69
229   229RH      Rhea       2015-Dec-31 22:30   365   24715  in   9.0    42
229   229AG      Aegaeon    2016-Jan-01 08:58   001   93761  in  15.7    88
229   229PN      Pan        2016-Jan-01 10:13   001   97199  in  14.7   107
229   229PA      Pandora    2016-Jan-01 11:27   001  106129  out 16.4    36
229   229ME      Methone    2016-Jan-01 12:09   001   27875  out  7.1   120
229   229TE      Tethys     2016-Jan-01 15:52   001   38734  out 11.3    68
230   230CP      Calypso    2016-Jan-14 02:01   014  116044  in  14.3    61
230   230EN      Enceladus  2016-Jan-14 03:18   014   73430  in  13.4    70
230   230MI      Mimas      2016-Jan-14 06:01   014   27022  in   7.0   104
230   230AT      Atlas      2016-Jan-14 06:18   014   94087  in  14.8   103
230   230DA      Daphnis    2016-Jan-14 07:07   014   20418  out  5.0    52
230   230TL      Telesto    2016-Jan-14 12:13   014   15177  out  9.2   116
230*  230TI T115 Titan      2016-Jan-16 02:20   016    3548  out  5.7   104
231   231AN      Anthe      2016-Jan-30 06:18   030  118713  out 12.2    45
231   231PN      Pan        2016-Jan-30 07:22   030  120349  out  0.9   132
231   231PO      Polydeuces 2016-Jan-30 11:01   030  107607  out  5.9   106
231*  231TI T116 Titan      2016-Feb-01 01:00   032    1398  out  5.8   121
232   232PO      Polydeuces 2016-Feb-14 20:02   045   78922  in   8.2    94
232   232TL      Telesto    2016-Feb-14 23:33   045   37059  in   6.9   102
232   232EP      Epimetheus 2016-Feb-15 00:30   046  108706  in   4.8    34
232   232EN      Enceladus  2016-Feb-15 04:10   046   82704  out  7.3    73
232*  232TI T117 Titan      2016-Feb-16 23:49   047    1018  out  5.9   122
233   233TI      Titan      2016-Mar-08 08:20   068  457540  in   6.3    77
234*  234TI T118 Titan      2016-Apr-04 19:42   095     990  out  5.9   139
235*  235TI T119 Titan      2016-May-06 16:54   127     969  out  5.9   139
236*  236TI T120 Titan      2016-Jun-07 14:06   159     974  out  5.8   125
238*  238TI T121 Titan      2016-Jul-25 09:58   207     975  out  5.8   101
239*  239TI T122 Titan      2016-Aug-10 08:30   223    1698  out  5.8    88
240   240TI      Titan      2016-Aug-19 05:43   232  816419  in   8.4   111
241   241TI      Titan      2016-Aug-30 13:26   243  996792  in   8.1    90
243   243PO      Polydeuces 2016-Sep-24 03:35   268  113267  in   9.5    53
243*  243TI T123 Titan      2016-Sep-27 04:16   271    1775  out  5.8    86
244   244TI      Titan      2016-Oct-03 17:06   277  875366  in  10.4   144
244   244HE      Helene     2016-Oct-03 21:39   277  117723  in  12.6   125
246   246TL      Telesto    2016-Oct-23 01:20   297   67605  in  12.2    80
247   247TI      Titan      2016-Oct-29 08:33   303  863484  in   5.7    40
247   247PO      Polydeuces 2016-Nov-01 13:18   306   95402  in  11.3    73
247   247TL      Telesto    2016-Nov-01 13:22   306   93856  in  11.7    20
248   248TE      Tethys     2016-Nov-11 05:06   316  114891  in  12.9   103
248*  248TI T124 Titan      2016-Nov-13 23:55   318    1585  out  5.8    78
249   249MI      Mimas      2016-Nov-19 07:33   324   44622  in  15.7    17
249   249AN      Anthe      2016-Nov-19 08:01   324   41538  in  16.5    91
249   249DA      Daphnis    2016-Nov-19 08:17   324   87659  in  17.6    61
249   249ME      Methone    2016-Nov-19 08:21   324   75663  in  17.2   104
249   249PA      Pandora    2016-Nov-19 08:44   324   98233  out 18.0    82
250   250EP      Epimetheus 2016-Nov-27 06:30   332   84082  in  16.7    11
250   250EN      Enceladus  2016-Nov-27 06:51   332   20284  in  15.6   109
250*  250TI T125 Titan      2016-Nov-29 22:14   334    3159  out  5.7    81
251   251PA      Pandora    2016-Dec-04 12:27   339  121003  in  22.3    43
251   251ME      Methone    2016-Dec-04 13:04   339   49459  in  19.5   116
251   251PN      Pan        2016-Dec-04 13:34   339   61407  out 21.9   105
252   252PM      Prometheus 2016-Dec-11 16:50   346  100678  in  21.6    44
252   252PL      Pallene    2016-Dec-11 17:24   346   98156  in  20.4   131
253   253TI      Titan      2016-Dec-15 21:52   350  342353  in   5.3    58
253   253EP      Epimetheus 2016-Dec-18 20:54   353  123981  in  22.2    48
253   253AG      Aegaeon    2016-Dec-18 21:11   353   94174  in  20.7    61
253   253PA      Pandora    2016-Dec-18 21:36   353   22117  in  20.6   100
253   253JA      Janus      2016-Dec-18 22:03   353  114420  out 23.8   109
253   253PN      Pan        2016-Dec-18 22:08   353   97727  out 23.6   107
254   254EN      Enceladus  2016-Dec-26 01:26   361   89346  in  19.3   136
254   254MI      Mimas      2016-Dec-26 01:30   361   40215  in  19.5   120
254   254AG      Aegaeon    2016-Dec-26 01:36   361   36630  in  20.4   136
255   255TI      Titan      2016-Dec-31 12:19   366  679042  in   7.2    29
255   255DA      Daphnis    2017-Jan-02 06:07   002  106433  out 23.9   107
256   256AT      Atlas      2017-Jan-09 08:44   009  101667  in  21.8    45
256   256EP      Epimetheus 2017-Jan-09 09:03   009   66777  in  20.5    56
256   256DA      Daphnis    2017-Jan-09 09:44   009   63442  out 22.0   106
256   256PM      Prometheus 2017-Jan-09 09:54   009   95070  out 23.3   107
257   257JA      Janus      2017-Jan-16 12:40   016  113320  in  21.8    51
257   257AT      Atlas      2017-Jan-16 13:05   016   24827  in  20.4    32
257   257PL      Pallene    2017-Jan-16 13:08   016   65052  in  19.7   149
257   257DA      Daphnis    2017-Jan-16 13:20   016   22509  in  20.7    86
257   257TI      Titan      2017-Jan-17 18:19   017  722698  out  9.3    96
258   258DA      Daphnis    2017-Jan-23 16:56   023   30566  in  20.4    35
258   258AN      Anthe      2017-Jan-23 16:58   023   96480  in  20.0    84
258   258PA      Pandora    2017-Jan-23 17:14   023   28103  in  20.8   102
258   258AT      Atlas      2017-Jan-23 17:27   023   58435  out 21.8   105
259   259DA      Daphnis    2017-Jan-30 20:34   030   77639  in  21.1    45
259   259AN      Anthe      2017-Jan-30 20:59   030   48003  in  19.7   148
259   259MI      Mimas      2017-Jan-30 21:01   030   39817  in  19.7   117
259   259EP      Epimetheus 2017-Jan-30 21:02   030    3566  in  20.2   116
259   259PM      Prometheus 2017-Jan-30 21:21   030   51638  in  21.5   105
259   259TI      Titan      2017-Feb-01 19:52   032  219437  out  6.3    90
260   260PN      Pan        2017-Feb-07 00:49   038   91584  in  21.4    44
260   260JA      Janus      2017-Feb-07 00:59   038   87316  in  20.9    54
260   260AN      Anthe      2017-Feb-07 01:27   038   93367  in  20.8   123
260   260ME      Methone    2017-Feb-07 01:28   038   87360  in  20.8   124
261   261AG      Aegaeon    2017-Feb-14 05:42   045   72080  in  20.1    70
261   261ME      Methone    2017-Feb-14 05:50   045   67905  in  19.6    98
261   261TI      Titan      2017-Feb-17 13:10   048  186791  out  5.1    78
262   262PN      Pan        2017-Feb-21 09:37   052   69885  in  21.0    44
262   262PM      Prometheus 2017-Feb-21 09:39   052   69044  in  20.8    49
262   262EP      Epimetheus 2017-Feb-21 10:00   052    8025  in  20.2    90
262   262PL      Pallene    2017-Feb-21 10:00   052  104861  in  19.8    93
262   262AG      Aegaeon    2017-Feb-21 10:10   052   54429  in  20.8   123
263   263JA      Janus      2017-Feb-28 13:45   059   89882  in  21.1    57
263   263PA      Pandora    2017-Feb-28 13:55   059   48380  in  20.4    50
264   264TI      Titan      2017-Mar-05 11:53   064  489882  in   5.9    42
264   264MI      Mimas      2017-Mar-07 18:00   066  100555  in  20.8    75
264   264PN      Pan        2017-Mar-07 18:04   066   22226  in  20.5    26
265   265EP      Epimetheus 2017-Mar-14 22:15   073   39728  in  21.1   114
265   265PA      Pandora    2017-Mar-14 22:44   073  117362  out 24.4   103
266   266TI      Titan      2017-Mar-20 17:42   079  870697  in   8.6    32
266   266JA      Janus      2017-Mar-22 01:45   081   42964  in  20.2    67
266   266PL      Pallene    2017-Mar-22 01:54   081  107734  in  20.8   122
266   266PN      Pan        2017-Mar-22 02:18   081   55726  out 21.9   100
266   266TI      Titan      2017-Mar-23 00:14   082  954530  out 11.3    96
267   267EN      Enceladus  2017-Mar-29 05:45   088   94519  in  19.4   134
267   267MI      Mimas      2017-Mar-29 06:05   088  121564  in  22.9   107
268   268AT      Atlas      2017-Apr-05 09:16   095   71812  in  21.0    51
268   268PA      Pandora    2017-Apr-05 09:30   095   33347  in  20.4    52
268   268EP      Epimetheus 2017-Apr-05 10:10   095  110704  out 23.8   103
268   268TI      Titan      2017-Apr-06 22:08   096  477504  out  7.7    89
269   269MI      Mimas      2017-Apr-12 13:27   102   98559  in  20.8    77
269   269AG      Aegaeon    2017-Apr-12 13:36   102   22250  in  19.9   121
269   269AT      Atlas      2017-Apr-12 13:41   102   10825  in  20.5    43
269   269JA      Janus      2017-Apr-12 13:41   102    8995  in  20.3   134
269   269PM      Prometheus 2017-Apr-12 14:08   102   82692  out 22.8   103
270   270AN      Anthe      2017-Apr-19 17:38   109  119533  in  20.4    80
270   270ME      Methone    2017-Apr-19 17:46   109   89125  in  20.9   120
270   270AG      Aegaeon    2017-Apr-19 18:03   109  110493  in  22.9   104
270   270AT      Atlas      2017-Apr-19 18:09   109   70389  out 22.3   102
270   270PA      Pandora    2017-Apr-19 18:24   109  122101  out 24.6   101
270   270DA      Daphnis    2017-Apr-19 18:28   109  120493  out 24.8   101
270*  270TI T126 Titan      2017-Apr-22 06:08   112     980  out  5.8    64
271   271JA      Janus      2017-Apr-26 08:45   116  112104  in  29.5   111
271   271AT      Atlas      2017-Apr-26 08:54   116   79768  in  30.1   140
271   271DA      Daphnis    2017-Apr-26 09:00   116   74033  in  30.1   143
271   271EP      Epimetheus 2017-Apr-26 09:03   116   93633  out 30.0   128
271   271AG      Aegaeon    2017-Apr-26 09:09   116  119855  out 29.6   113
272   272DA      Daphnis    2017-May-02 19:26   122  101582  in  30.3   106
272   272PM      Prometheus 2017-May-02 19:32   122   82958  in  30.1   137
272   272AG      Aegeon     2017-May-02 19:45   122  113946  out 29.8   124
272   272JA      Janus      2017-May-02 19:56   122  122425  out 28.5    92
273   273TI      Titan      2017-May-07 20:32   127  496014  in   7.2    31
273   273PA      Pandora    2017-May-09 06:04   129   91033  in  30.2   127
273   273AG      Aegeon     2017-May-09 06:16   129  108715  in  30.1   136
273   273TI      Titan      2017-May-09 21:09   129  966220  out 12.5    89
274   274EP      Epimetheus 2017-May-15 16:26   135  114131  in  29.5   106
274   274PN      Pan        2017-May-15 16:34   135   83213  in  30.4   125
274   274PM      Prometheus 2017-May-15 16:36   135   80456  in  30.2   141
274   274AG      Aegaeon    2017-May-15 16:41   135  105008  in  30.1   147
274   274AT      Atlas      2017-May-15 16:45   135   82817  out 30.2   126
274   274PA      Pandora    2017-May-15 16:59   135  116363  out 28.9    90
275   275JA      Janus      2017-May-22 03:06   142   88945  in  30.0   147
275   275AG      Aegaeon    2017-May-22 03:07   142  104520  in  30.1   150
275   275PN      Pan        2017-May-22 03:19   142   93691  out 30.1   105
275   275EP      Epimetheus 2017-May-22 03:25   142  115563  out 29.1   100
275   275TI      Titan      2017-May-24 00:18   144  117956  out  5.9    69
276   276AG      Aegaeon    2017-May 28 14:20   148  103137  in  29.7   150
276   276PM      Prometheus 2017-May-28 14:21   148   75048  in  29.7   149
277   277AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jun-04 01:36   155  103058  in  29.7   151
277   277PA      Pandora    2017-Jun-04 01:36   155   77610  in  29.7   150
277   277DA      Daphnis    2017-Jun-04 01:57   155  114630  out 28.6    89
278   278TI      Titan      2017-Jun-08 18:44   159  367299  in   6.2    38
278   278PN      Pan        2017-Jun-10 12:36   161  101549  in  30.4    96
278   278JA      Janus      2017-Jun-10 12:39   161   98816  in  29.7   122
278   278AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jun-10 12:48   161  103577  in  29.8   151
278   278AT      Atlas      2017-Jun-10 12:49   161   74708  in  29.9   148
278   278DA      Daphnis    2017-Jun-10 12:52   161   79063  in  29.9   135
278   278EP      Epimetheus 2017-Jun-10 12:54   161   94629  out 29.7   133
278   278PM      Prometheus 2017-Jun-10 12:59   161   98712  out 29.6   109
279   279DA      Daphnis    2017-Jun-16 23:45   167   81556  in  30.0   127
279   279AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jun-16 23:50   167  103573  in  29.9   151
279   279PN      Pan	    2017-Jun-16 23:59   167   88270  out 29.9   116
280   280DA      Daphnis    2017-Jun-23 10:32   174  124034  in  30.1    72
280   280PA      Pandora    2017-Jun-23 10:37   174  113224  in  29.9    88
280   280AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jun-23 10:51   174  103502  in  29.8   151
280   280TI      Titan      2017-Jun-24 22:28   175  297957  out  6.9    67
281   281JA      Janus      2017-Jun-29 21:50   180  124151  in  28.9    86
281   281EP      Epimetheus 2017-Jun-29 22:06   180   88937  in  29.6   147
281   281AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jun-29 22:09   180  103293  in  29.7   151
281   281PA      Pandora    2017-Jun-29 22:24   180  110497  out 29.0   102
282   282PN      Pan        2017-Jul-06 09:16   187  106924  in  30.4    85
282   282AT      Atlas      2017-Jul-06 09:30   187   74089  in  29.7   151
282   282AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jul-06 09:31   187  103978  in  29.7   151
282   282JA      Janus      2017-Jul-06 09:52   187  124681  out 27.8    99
283   283TI      Titan      2017-Jul-10 13:50   191  264317  in   5.4    56
283   283PM      Prometheus 2017-Jul-12 20:30   193  103774  in  30.0    94
283   283MI      Mimas      2017-Jul-12 20:40   193  123553  in  30.1   152
283   283AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jul-12 20:44   193  105326  in  29.9   151
283   283PN      Pan        2017-Jul-12 20:50   193   87816  out 29.9   121
284   284EP      Epimetheus 2017-Jul-19 07:40   200  101711  in  29.7   116
284   284PA      Pandora    2017-Jul-19 07:50   200   79011  in  29.9   151
284   284AG      Aegaeon    2017-Jul-19 07:51   200  105445  in  30.0   151
285   285TI      Titan      2017-Jul-25 00:02   206  949180  in  10.8    58
285   285PM      Prometheus 2017-Jul-25 18:50   206   79134  in  30.0   135
285   285AG      Aegean     2017-Jul-25 18:55   206  105317  in  29.9   152
285   285JA      Janus      2017-Jul-25 19:02   206  101978  out 29.7   129
285   285TI      Titan      2017-Jul-26 23:20   207  494284  out  8.2    66
286   286PN      Pan        2017-Aug-01 05:47   213  115992  in  30.5    71
286   286AT      Atlas      2017-Aug-01 06:03   213   74145  in  29.9   150
286   286AG      Aegaeon    2017-Aug-01 06:05   213  105539  in  29.9   152
286   286DA      Daphnis    2017-Aug-01 06:17   213  103093  out 29.5   110
287   287PA      Pandora    2017-Aug-07 17:07   219   98900  in  29.9   100
287   287DA      Daphnis    2017-Aug-07 17:19   219   74556  in  29.9   152
287   287AG      Aegaeon    2017-Aug-07 17:20   219  106327  in  29.9   151
287   287PM      Prometheus 2017-Aug-07 17:22   219   84047  in  29.9   141
287   287PN      Pan        2017-Aug-07 17:23   219   81204  out 29.9   135
288   288TI      Titan      2017-Aug-11 05:04   223  194991  in   5.1    77
288   288DA      Daphnis    2017-Aug-14 04:08   226   91318  in  30.3   103
288   288AG      Aegaeon    2017-Aug-14 04:19   226  106925  in  30.2   153
288   288JA      Janus      2017-Aug-14 04:19   226   90303  in  30.2   153
288   288EP      Epimetheus 2017-Aug-14 04:32   226  115875  out 29.3   119
288   288PA      Pandora    2017-Aug-14 04:39   226  117866  out 28.2   103
289   289AG      Aegaeon    2017-Aug-20 15:19   232  106482  in  30.2   153
289   289PM      Prometheus 2017-Aug-20 15:32   232  107581  out 29.3   113
290   290TI      Titan      2017-Aug-26 02:25   238  791237  in   9.3    57
290   290AT      Atlas      2017-Aug-27 02:08   239   78591  in  30.2   130
290   290AG      Aegaeon    2017-Aug-27 02:13   239  105798  in  30.2   153
290   290TI      Titan      2017-Aug-28 01:05   240  680519  out  9.6    65
291   291JA      Janus      2017-Sep-02 12:58   245  100273  in  29.9   112
291   291PA      Pandora    2017-Sep-02 13:06   245   79822  in  30.2   146
291   291PN      Pan        2017-Sep-02 13:06   245   71308  in  30.2   148
291   291AG      Aegaeon    2017-Sep-02 13:07   245  105326  in  30.2   151
291   291EP      Epimetheus 2017-Sep-02 13:08   245   90026  in  30.3   152
292   292AG      Aegaeon    2017-Sep-09 00:03   252  105124  in  30.1   148
292   292TI      Titan      2017-Sep-11 19:04   254  119733  out  5.1    86
293   293AG      Aegaeon    2017-Sep-15 10:32   258  108085  in  30.5   137
293   End of Mission        2017-Sep-15 10:32   258  Loss of S-band carrier
293   293SA  Saturn         2017-Sep-15 10:33   258  -60268  in  34.0    35
 
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Cassini navigation team has discovered that it is possible to move
the spacecraft orbit's inner ring-plane crossing all the way over
Saturn's entire main ring system, from just beyond the F ring, to the
cleared gap between Saturn's upper atmosphere and inner portion of the
main rings, using one single Titan flyby.  So far, it has been
impossible to get very close to Saturn itself due to the presence of
the main rings out to over 140,000 km from the center of Saturn. During
SOI the spacecraft passed 18,000 km from the cloud tops, and that is
the closest the project ever expected to get to the planet and rings,
enabled by the hyperbolic approach trajectory. It was thought that
there was no feasible way to construct an orbit with reasonable period
that gets any closer to Saturn and yet does not pass through the main
rings - the implementation of which would undoubtedly destroy the
spacecraft. No safe gaps in the main ring system exist that could be
employed as intermediate steps.
 
This proximal orbit geometry is implemented by raising the orbit
inclination to a moderately high level (~63 degrees) and placing the
inner ring-plane crossing barely but safely outside the main rings. The
other ring-plane crossing is located at Titan, as usual, since Cassini
must continually encounter Titan to employ its significant gravity
assist resources. Then, with one flyby, the orbit is altered to move
the ring-plane crossing to between 2,000 to 5,000 above the 'cloud
tops' of Saturn (1 bar level). The environment is known well enough for
the project to conclude with sufficient confidence that the risk of
debris impact or atmospheric tumbling is acceptably small. Furthermore,
the radiation environment is not significantly different from that
experienced during SOI.
 
The proposed end phase includes 22 orbits in this region, called
proximal orbits.  This Juno-like mission phase offers significant
unique science opportunities for Cassini, including gravity mapping
measurements, high resolution ring observations, and in-situ
measurements of Saturn's atmosphere.
 
Final disposal of the spacecraft will take place within Saturn's
atmosphere on 15 September 2017. This entire trajectory, starting after
the last targeted proximal-injecting Titan flyby, is entirely
ballistic, requiring no further maneuvers. In other words, the end of
mission is assured regardless of the spacecraft condition. It is
anticipated that this disposal strategy will be acceptable for
Planetary Protection.
 
            END OF MISSION
            --------------
MISSION_OBJECTIVES_SUMMARY
CASSINI-HUYGENS MISSION OBJECTIVES
    ==================================
 
The Cassini-Huygens mission will accomplish a variety of scientific
objectives en route to and at Saturn [JPL D-5564].
 
While en route to Saturn, Cassini performed three sets of Gravitational
Wave Experiments (GWEs), each scheduled near opposition and each lasting
approximately 40 days.  During these observations, Cassini acted as a point
mass which would be perturbed by propagating gravitational waves resulting
from sudden destruction (or creation) of large masses in the general
direction of the spacecraft-to-Earth line.
 
While en route to Saturn, Cassini was also used in two Solar Conjunction
Experiments (SCEs), each lasting approximately 30 days.  The objectives of
these observations was to test general relativity and to improve our
understanding of the solar corona.
 
The general scientific objectives of the Cassini mission at Saturn were to
investigate the physical, chemical, and temporal characteristics of Titan
and of Saturn, its atmosphere, rings, icy satellites, and magnetosphere.
These are listed more specifically below:
 
Saturn (Planet) Objectives.
--------------------------
 
a) Determine temperature field, cloud properties, and composition of the
atmosphere of Saturn.
 
b) Measure the global wind field, including wave and eddy components;
observe synoptic cloud features and processes.
 
c) Infer the internal structure and rotation of the deep atmosphere.
 
d) Study the diurnal variations and magnetic control of the ionosphere of
Saturn.
 
e) Provide observational constraints (gas composition, isotope ratios, and
heat flux, etc.) on scenarios for the formation and the evolution of Saturn.
 
f) Investigate the sources and the morphology of Saturn lightning, Saturn
Electrostatic Discharges (SED), and whistlers.
 
 
Titan Objectives.
----------------
 
a) Determine abundance of atmospheric constituents (including any noble
gases), establish isotope ratios for abundant elements, constrain scenarios
of formation and evolution of Titan and its atmosphere.
 
b) Observe vertical and horizontal distributions of trace gases, search for
more complex organic molecules, investigate energy sources for atmospheric
chemistry, and model the photochemistry of the stratosphere, study
formation and composition of aerosols.
 
c) Measure winds and global temperatures; investigate cloud physics,
general circulation, and seasonal effects in Titan's atmosphere; search for
lightning discharges.
 
d) Determine the physical state, topography, and composition of the
surface; infer the internal structure of the satellite.
 
e) Investigate the upper atmosphere, its ionization, and its role as a
source of neutral and ionized material for magnetosphere of Saturn.
 
 
Ring Objectives.
---------------
 
a) Study configuration of the rings and dynamical processes (gravitational,
viscous, erosional, and electromagnetic) responsible for ring structure.
 
b) Map composition and size distribution of ring material.
 
c) Investigate interrelation of rings and satellites, including embedded
satellites.
 
d) Determine dust and meteoroid distribution in the vicinity of the rings.
 
e) Study interactions between the rings and Saturn's magnetosphere,
ionosphere, and atmosphere.
 
 
Icy Satellite Objectives.
------------------------
 
a) Determine the general characteristics and geological histories of the
satellites.
 
b) Define the mechanisms of crustal and surface modifications, both
external and internal.
 
c) Investigate the compositions and distributions of surface materials,
particularly dark, organic rich materials and low melting point condensed
volatiles.
 
d) Constrain models of the satellites' bulk compositions and internal
structures.
 
e) Investigate interactions with the magnetosphere and ring systems and
possible gas injections into the magnetosphere.
 
 
Magnetosphere Objectives
------------------------
 
a) Determine the configuration of the nearly axially symmetric magnetic
field and its relation to the modulation of Saturn Kilometric Radiation
(SKR).
 
b) Determine current systems, composition, sources, and sinks of
magnetosphere charged particles.
 
c) Investigate wave-particle interactions and dynamics of the dayside
magnetosphere and the magnetotail of Saturn and their interactions with the
solar wind, the satellites, and the rings.
 
d) Study the effect of Titan's interaction with the solar wind and
magnetospheric plasma.
 
e) Investigate interactions of Titan's atmosphere and exosphere with the
surrounding plasma.
REFERENCE_DESCRIPTION