Mission Information
MISSION_NAME INTERNATIONAL ROSETTA MISSION
MISSION_ALIAS ROSETTA
MISSION_START_DATE 1995-03-01T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_STOP_DATE 3000-01-01T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_DESCRIPTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                             
----------------------------------                                            
= ROSETTA Mission Overview                                                    
= ROSETTA Mission Objectives                                                  
  - Science Objectives                                                        
= Mission Profile                                                             
= Mission Phases Overview                                                     
  - Mission Phase Schedule                                                    
  - Solar Conjunctions/Oppositions                                            
  - Payload Checkouts                                                         
= Mission Phases Description                                                  
  - Launch phase (LEOP)                                                       
  - Commissioning phase                                                       
  - Cruise phase 1                                                            
  - Earth swing-by 1                                                          
  - Cruise phase 2 (and Deep Impact)                                          
  - Mars swing-by                                                             
  - Cruise phase 3                                                            
  - Earth swing-by 2                                                          
  - Cruise phase 4 (splitted in 4-1 and 4-2)                                  
  - Steins flyby                                                              
  - Earth swing-by 3                                                          
  - Cruise phase 5                                                            
  - Lutetia flyby                                                             
  - Rendez-Vous Manoeuver 1                                                   
  - Cruise phase 6                                                            
  - Rendez-Vous Manoeuver 2                                                   
  - Near comet drift (NCD) phase                                              
  - Approach phase                                                            
  - Lander delivery and relay phase                                           
  - Escort phase                                                              
  - Near perihelion phase                                                     
  - Extended mission                                                          
= Orbiter Experiments                                                         
  - ALICE                                                                     
  - CONSERT                                                                   
  - COSIMA                                                                    
  - GIADA                                                                     
  - MIDAS                                                                     
  - MIRO                                                                      
  - OSIRIS                                                                    
  - ROSINA                                                                    
  - RPC                                                                       
  - RSI                                                                       
  - VIRTIS                                                                    
  - SREM                                                                      
= LANDER (PHILAE)                                                             
  - Science Objectives                                                        
  - Lander Experiments                                                        
= Ground Segment                                                              
  - Rosetta Ground Segment                                                    
    - Rosetta Science Operations Center                                       
    - Rosetta Mission Operations Center                                       
  - Rosetta Lander Ground Segment                                             
    - Lander Control Center                                                   
    - Science Operations and Navigation Center                                
  - Rosetta Scientific Data Archive                                           
                                                                              
= Acronyms                                                                    
                                                                              
                                                                              
ROSETTA Mission Overview                                                      
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
The ROSETTA mission is an interplanetary mission whose main                   
objectives are the rendezvous and in-situ measurements of the comet           
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, scheduled for 2014/2015. The spacecraft            
carries a Rosetta Lander, named Philae, to the nucleus and deploys it         
onto its surface.                                                             
                                                                              
A brief description of the mission and its objectives can be found in         
[GLASSMEIERETAL2007A]. A detailed description of the mission analysis         
can be found in the ROSETTA User Manual [RO-DSS-MA-1001], and the             
flight Operations Plan [RO-ESC-PL-5000].                                      
                                                                              
On its long way to the comet nucleus after a Launch by Ariane 5 P1+           
in March 2004, the ROSETTA spacecraft orbited the Sun for one year            
until it returned to Earth for the first swing-by. The planet Mars was        
reached in February 2007, about 3 years after launch. In November             
2007 a second Earth swing-by took place and a third one in November           
2009. Two asteroid flybys (2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia) were performed         
on the way to the comet. These two asteroids had been selected at the         
Science Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the                 
available candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interest           
and the propellant required for the correction manoeuvre. Around the          
aphelion of its orbit, which is 5.3 AU from the Sun, the spacecraft           
has been in a spinning hibernation mode for about 2.5 years.                  
                                                                              
Rosetta rendezvoused with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August           
2014. The Philae lander was deployed to the surface of the comet on 12        
November 2014.                                                                
The end of the nominal mission is planned in December 2015.                   
The mission has been extended to 30th September 2016.                         
                                                                              
The Mission Phase Schedule can be found below based on the official           
mission calendar. For archive purpose, we used a slightly updated             
calendar splitting the escort and extension phases.                           
Below we summarise the phases used by the team for archive purpose:           
                                                                              
MISSION_PHASE_NAME       | Abbn |  Start date  |  End date   |                
--------------------------------------------------------------                
'GROUND'                 | GRND |    ***       |  2019-09-30 |                
'LAUNCH'                 | LEOP |  2004-03-03  |  2004-03-04 |                
'COMMISSIONING 1'        | CVP1 |  2004-03-05  |  2004-06-06 |                
'CRUISE 1'               | CR1  |  2004-06-07  |  2004-09-05 |                
'COMMISSIONING 2'        | CVP2 |  2004-09-06  |  2004-10-16 |                
'EARTH SWING-BY 1'       | EAR1 |  2004-10-17  |  2005-04-04 |                
'CRUISE 2'               | CR2  |  2005-04-05  |  2006-07-28 |                
'MARS SWING-BY '         | MARS |  2006-07-29  |  2007-05-28 |                
'CRUISE 3'               | CR3  |  2007-05-29  |  2007-09-12 |                
'EARTH SWING-BY 2'       | EAR2 |  2007-09-13  |  2008-01-27 |                
'CRUISE 4-1'             | CR4A |  2008-01-28  |  2008-08-03 |                
'STEINS FLY-BY'          | AST1 |  2008-08-04  |  2008-10-05 |                
'CRUISE 4-2'             | CR4B |  2008-10-06  |  2009-09-13 |                
'EARTH SWING-BY 3'       | EAR3 |  2009-09-14  |  2009-12-13 |                
'CRUISE 5'               | CR5  |  2009-12-14  |  2010-05-16 |                
'LUTETIA FLY-BY'         | AST2 |  2010-05-17  |  2010-09-03 |                
'RENDEZVOUS MANOEUVRE 1' | RVM1 |  2010-09-04  |  2011-06-07 |                
'CRUISE 6'               | CR6  |  2011-06-08  |  2014-01-20 |                
'PRELANDING'             | PRL  |  2014-01-21  |  2014-11-19 |                
'COMET ESCORT 1'         | ESC1 |  2014-11-20  |  2015-03-10 |                
'COMET ESCORT 2'         | ESC2 |  2015-03-11  |  2015-06-30 |                
'COMET ESCORT 3'         | ESC3 |  2015-07-01  |  2015-10-21 |                
'COMET ESCORT 4'         | ESC4 |  2015-10-22  |  2015-12-31 |                
ROSETTA EXTENSION 1      | EXT1 |  2016-01-01  |  2016-04-05 |                
ROSETTA EXTENSION 2      | EXT2 |  2016-04-06  |  2016-06-30 |                
ROSETTA EXTENSION 3      | EXT3 |  2016-07-01  |  2016-09-30 |                
--------------------------------------------------------------                
                                                                              
For the Lander, the Cruise Phase data sets followed the same                  
filenaming but the Comet phase has been split differently:                    
                                                                              
MISSION_PHASE_NAME | Abbn|      Start date     |      End date       |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
'POST HIBERNATION  | PHC | 2014-04-09T08:15:25 | 2014-04-23T15:45:13 |        
  COMMISSIONING'   |     |                     |                     |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
'PRE DELIVERY      | PDCS| 2014-07-13T14:42:56 | 2014-10-17T20:31:20 |        
 CALIB SCIENCE'    |     |                     |                     |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
'SEPARATION DESCENT| SDL | 2014-11-12T08:35:02 | 2014-11-12T15:34:04 |        
     LANDING'      |     |                     |                     |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
   'REBOUNDS'      | RBD | 2014-11-12T15:34:05 | 2014-11-12T17:30:20 |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
'FIRST SCIENCE     | FSS | 2014-11-12T17:30:21 | 2014-11-15T01:00:00 |        
    SEQUENCE'      |     |                     |                     |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
                                                                              
Please note:                                                                  
------------                                                                  
The ROSETTA spacecraft was originally designed for a mission to the           
comet 46 P/Wirtanen to be launched in January 2003. Due to a delay of         
the launch a new comet (67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko) had been selected          
by the Science Working Team on 3rd-4th April 2003.                            
The compliance of the design was checked and where necessary adapted          
for this new mission. Therefore in the following all the details and          
characteristics for this new mission are used.                                
                                                                              
                                                                              
ROSETTA Mission Objectives                                                    
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
The scientific objectives of the ROSETTA mission can be considered            
from three main viewpoints:                                                   
                                                                              
First of all, comets and asteroids are fully-fledged members of our           
solar system, which means, that they are objects of intrinsic                 
interest to planetary scientists. The level of investigations                 
conducted on these bodies is therefore far below that achieved for            
the other objects of the solar system.                                        
The study of the small solar-system bodies arguably represents the            
last major gap in the tremendous worldwide effort that has been made          
to reveal our planetary neighbours to us.                                     
                                                                              
The most important scientific rationale for studying small solar-             
system bodies is the key role-play in helping us to understand the            
formation of the solar system. Comets and asteroids have a close              
genetic relationship with the planetesimals, which formed from the            
solar nebula 4.57 billion years ago. Most of our present                      
understanding of these processes has been obtained by studying                
meteorites, which constitute a biased sample of asteroidal material,          
and micrometeoroids, which may represent cometary grains processed by         
solar radiation and atmospheric entry. There is therefore a strong            
scientific case of studying cometary material in situ, as it is               
surely more primitive than extraterrestrial samples.                          
                                                                              
A third scientific aspect is the study of the physio-chemical                 
processes, which are specific to comets and asteroids. In this                
respect, asteroids can provide information on impact phenomena,               
particularly on very large scale. However, the increase in cometary           
activity as these bodies approach the Sun undoubtedly represents one          
of the most complex and fascinating processes to be observed in the           
solar system.                                                                 
                                                                              
Science Objectives                                                            
---------------------                                                         
The prime scientific objectives as defined in the Announcement of             
Opportunity [RO-EST-AO-0001] by the Rosetta Science Team can be               
summarized as:                                                                
                                                                              
- Global characterisation of the nucleus, determination of dynamic            
properties, surface morphology and composition                                
                                                                              
- Chemical, mineralogical and isotropic compositions of volatiles and         
refractories in a cometary nucleus                                            
                                                                              
- Physical properties and interrelation of volatiles and refractories         
in a cometary nucleus                                                         
                                                                              
- Study of the development of cometary activity and the processes in          
the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma (dust-gas              
interaction)                                                                  
                                                                              
- Origin of comets, relationship between cometary and interstellar            
material.                                                                     
                                                                              
- Implications for the origin of the solar system                             
                                                                              
- Global characterisation of the asteroid, determination of dynamic           
properties, surface morphology and composition.                               
                                                                              
                                                                              
Mission Profile                                                               
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
The ROSETTA mission profile results from the orbit of the target              
comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which has a perihelion close to 1.2          
AU and an aphelion of about 5.7 AU, resulting in a period of about            
6.5 years. A detailed description of the Mission Profile can be found         
in the Rosetta Mission Calendar [RO-ESC-PL-5026] and in the RSOC              
Design Specification [RO-EST-PL-2010].                                        
                                                                              
The injection of the spacecraft by a single Ariane 5 Launch with the          
so-called 'delayed ignition' of the upper stage, was not directly into        
the trajectory to the comet, because of the high spacecraft wet mass.         
Therefore the spacecraft had to be accelerated by a sequence of               
gravity assist manoeuvres at Mars and the Earth, in order to catch up         
with the comet's velocity at perihelion.                                      
                                                                              
The initially large distance to the comet at the perihelion of its            
trajectory has been slowly decreasing after the third Earth swing-by.         
At the intersection of both orbits, the difference in orbit                   
inclination and the residual relative velocity were diminished by the         
comet orbit matching manoeuvre at around 4.0 AU Sun distance. The             
range of the spacecraft-to-Sun distance was between 0.88 and 5.33 AU,         
defined by the minimum Sun distance during the first five years of the        
mission with the swing-bys at Earth, and the maximum Sun distance             
close to the aphelion of the comet's orbit. The evolution of the              
spacecraft distance to Earth over the mission time followed the               
profile of the Sun distance superimposed by an oscillation with an            
amplitude of 2 AU (+1,-1) and a period of about one year due to the           
Earth's motion around the Sun. This resulted in a range from 0 AU             
(Earth Departure and Swing-by) to 6.3 AU during the superior solar            
conjunction close to the spacecraft's aphelion (see Solar Conjunctions        
section below).                                                               
                                                                              
After the second and third Earth swing-by ROSETTA crossed the                 
asteroid main belt, which gave the opportunity of two asteroid flybys.        
The asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia, were encountered on                 
5 September 2008 and 10 July 2010 respectively. These two asteroids           
had been selected at the Science Working Team meeting on 11th March           
2004 among all the available candidate asteroids, depending on the            
scientific interests and the propellant required for the correction           
manoeuvre.                                                                    
Between the major mission events, up to the comet rendezvous                  
manoeuvre, the spacecraft performed long interplanetary cruise phases         
(up to 2.5 years) with several solar conjunctions (see Solar                  
Conjunctions section below) and the power critical aphelion passage           
(last cruise phase). In order to reduce the ground segment costs and          
the wear and tear of spacecraft equipment during these phases, the            
spacecraft was put in 'Hibernation Mode'.                                     
                                                                              
Two types of hibernation modes were planned to be used:                       
                                                                              
* 'Deep Space Hibernation Mode' above 4.5 AU: Inertial spin mode with         
a spin rate of 4 deg/sec. The spacecraft was almost entirely passive,         
except of receivers/ decoders, power supply, heaters and two                  
Processor Modules with one RTU.                                               
                                                                              
* 'Near Sun Hibernation Mode' below 4.5 AU: 3-axes stabilised mode            
with the solar arrays Sun-pointing and the +X-axis Earth-pointing.            
Attitude control was performed with thrusters and star trackers, based        
on ephemerides; occasional solar array adjustments and ground                 
contacts via the medium gain antenna (MGA).                                   
                                                                              
The final approach to the comet into its sphere of influence was              
prepared by the rendezvous manoeuvre (RVM-2), that matched the                
spacecraft orbit with the comet orbit.                                        
                                                                              
A subsequent sequence of approach manoeuvres, supported by optical            
navigation, took the spacecraft closer and closer to the comet.               
After determination of the physical model of the comet by Doppler and         
optical measurements, the spacecraft was inserted into a global               
mapping orbit around the comet.                                               
                                                                              
The 'Duck-shape' of the comet was a surprised and a challenge for the         
Flight Dynamics team. Three activity cases had been planned to orbit          
the comet, respectively at 30, 20 or 10km. Finally, it has been chosen        
to go to 10km.                                                                
Meanwhile, a board was selecting 5 and then 2 landing sites. The              
chosen landing site were located on the 'head' of the Duck Shape              
comet.                                                                        
The delivery of the Lander or Surface Science Package (SSP) was               
achieved from an eccentric orbit, which took the spacecraft to a low          
altitude above the selected landing site. The Lander release was fully        
automatic according to a predefined schedule, and led to a first touch        
down with minimum vertical and horizontal velocities relative to the          
local rotating surface.                                                       
The first touch down reached the foreseen landing site within 50m             
accuracy. However, the Lander did not succeed in harpooning and               
bounced twice. It was stopped by cliff walls, which unluckily hid the         
Lander from the Sun.                                                          
The Lander, Philae, had the time to operate all instruments on board,         
during a phase named the FSS, First Science Sequence, before going to         
sleep on November, 15th at 00:36 UTC. Upon the landing of the Lander,         
the spacecraft provided uplink and downlink data relay between the            
Lander and the Earth.                                                         
                                                                              
After the Lander delivery the ROSETTA spacecraft escorted the comet           
until the perihelion passage (13th August 2015) and outwards again,           
until a Sun distance of 2 AU was reached at end of the year 2015.             
The main scientific objective during this phase was the monitoring of         
the features of the active comet.                                             
The mission was extended from 1st January 2016 to 30th September 2016.        
Rosetta ended its journey on September 30th by a controlled impact            
onto the comet from a altitude of about 19km.                                 
                                                                              
Mission Phases Overview                                                       
======================================================================        
                                                                              
This section gives an overview of the major mission phases and main           
events in scheduled tables. A description of the individual phases is         
given in the following section. More detailed information can be              
found in the Rosetta Mission Calendar [RO-ESC-PL-5026] and the RSOC           
Design Specification [RO-EST-PL-2010]                                         
                                                                              
Mission Phase Schedule                                                        
-----------------------                                                       
The following table shows a schedule of the mission phases, with              
start-end times (dd/mm/yyyy), duration (days) and distance to the sun         
(Astronomical Units). Some of the most important events within the            
mission phases are marked with an arrow (->). Further description of          
each mission phase is given below.                                            
                                                                              
.====================================================================         
|     Phase       |Start Date|Main Event| End Date |Dur |SunDist(AU)|         
|=================|==========|==========|==========|====|===========|         
|LEOP             |02/03/2004|          |04/03/2004| 3  |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Commissioning1   |05/03/2004|          |06/06/2004| 94 | 0.89-0.99 |         
|  ->DSM1         |          |11/05/2004|          |    |           |         
|  ->DSM1 Touch-up|          |16/05/2004|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 1         |07/06/2004|          |05/09/2004| 91 | 0.89-1.04 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Commissioning2   |06/09/2004|          |16/10/2004| 41 | 1.04-1.09 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Earth Swing-by1  |17/10/2004|          |04/04/2005| 170| 0.99-1.11 |         
|  ->Earth        |          |04/03/2005|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 2         |05/04/2005|          |28/07/2006| 480| 1.04-1.76 |         
|  ->Deep Impact  |          |04/07/2005|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Mars Swing-by    |29/07/2006|          |28/05/2007| 304| 0.99-1.59 |         
|  ->DSM2         |          |29/09/2006|          |    |           |         
|  ->Mars         |          |25/02/2007|          |    |           |         
|  ->DSM3         |          |29/04/2007|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 3         |29/05/2007|          |12/09/2007| 107| 1.32-1.58 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Earth Swing-by2  |13/09/2007|          |27/01/2008| 137| 0.91-1.32 |         
|  ->Earth        |          |13/11/2007|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 4-1       |28/01/2008|          |03/08/2008| 189| 1.02-2.03 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Steins Flyby     |04/08/2008|          |05/10/2008| 63 | 2.03-2.19 |         
|  ->Steins       |          |05/09/2008|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 4-2       |06/10/2008|          |13/09/2009| 343| 1.35-2.26 |         
|  ->DSM4         |          |19/03/2009|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Earth Swing-by3  |14/09/2009|          |13/12/2009| 92 | 0.98-1.35 |         
|  ->Earth        |          |13/11/2009|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 5         |14/12/2009|          |16/05/2010| 154| 1.03-2.45 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Lutetia Flyby    |17/05/2010|          |03/09/2010| 111| 2.45-3.14 |         
|  ->Lutetia      |          |10/07/2010|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Rendez-vousMan1  |04/09/2010|          |13/07/2011| 313| 3.15-4.58 |         
|  ->RVM1         |          |23/01/2011|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Cruise 6 (DSHM)  |14/07/2011|          |20/01/2014| 917| 4.46-5.29 |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Rendez-vousMan2  |21/01/2014|          |17/08/2014| 206| 3.40-4.49 |         
| ->RVM2 1st burn |          |21/05/2014|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Global Mapping   |18/08/2014|          |19/10/2014| 63 | 3.15-3.53 |         
|and Close        |          |          |          |    |           |         
|Observation      |          |          |          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Lander Delivery  |20/10/2014|          |16/11/2014| 28 | 2.97-3.15 |         
|->Lander Delivery|          |12/11/2014|          |    |           |         
|-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------|         
|Comet Escort     |17/11/2014|          |31/12/2015| 410| 1.24-2.96 |         
'-------------------------------------------------------------------'         
| Extension       |31/12/2015|          |30/09/2016| 274| 2.01-3.83 |         
'-------------------------------------------------------------------'         
                                                                              
Payload Checkouts                                                             
-----------------                                                             
Payload checkouts were scenarios designed to allow Rosetta payload to         
make regular health checks, to activate mechanisms and to monitor             
trends through calibration tests. They were allocated in the mission          
calendar at regular 6-month periods during the first 10 years of the          
mission cruise phase. They were split into passive and active payload         
checkouts. Passive payload checkouts were entirely non-interactive.           
Conditions for the passive checkout were that it would:                       
a) not require any real time monitoring, b) run entirely off of MTL,          
c) not require s/c specific pointing other than to maintain listed            
constraints, d) produce minimal science data. Active payload checkout         
operations were executed both interactively and non-interactively .           
Conditions for the active checkout were that it would: a) limit the           
requirement for real time monitoring, b) run mostly from MTL, c) limit        
the requirement for s/c specific pointing beyond maintaining listed           
constraints, d) produce minimal science data. There was more                  
flexibility during active checkouts and in addition payloads used             
interactive passes to make any necessary memory patches and tests.            
                                                                              
.-------------------------------------------------------------------.         
|      Name       | Type   | Begin    |    End    |  Mission Phase  |         
|-----------------|--------|----------|-----------|-----------------|         
| P/L Checkout 0  |Passive |27/03/2005| 31/03/2005| Earth Swing-by 1|         
| P/L Checkout 1  |Passive |30/09/2005| 05/10/2005|    Cruise 2     |         
| P/L Checkout 2  |Passive |03/03/2006| 08/03/2006|    Cruise 2     |         
| P/L Checkout 3  |Passive |25/08/2006| 30/08/2006|  Mars Swing-by  |         
| P/L Checkout 4  | Active |23/11/2006| 22/12/2006|  Mars Swing-by  |         
| P/L Checkout 5  |Passive |18/05/2007| 23/05/2007|  Mars Swing-by  |         
| P/L Checkout 6  | Active |13/09/2007| 29/09/2007| Earth Swing-by 2|         
| P/L Checkout 7  |Passive |04/01/2008| 09/01/2008| Earth Swing-by 2|         
| P/L Checkout 8  | Active |19/07/2008| 24/07/2008|   Cruise 4-1    |         
| P/L Checkout 9  |Passive |28/01/2009| 02/02/2009|   Cruise 4-2    |         
| P/L Checkout 10 | Active |18/09/2009| 08/10/2009| Earth Swing-by 3|         
| P/L Checkout 12 |Passive |22/04/2010| 15/05/2010|    Cruise 5     |         
| P/L Checkout 13 |Passive |01/12/2010| 15/12/2010|      RVM1       |         
'-------------------------------------------------------------------'         
                                                                              
Solar Conjunctions/Oppositions                                                
-------------------------------                                               
Other mission phases, which resulted from the orbit geometry and              
interfered with the above operational phases, were the solar                  
conjunctions.                                                                 
Two types of conjunctions occurred throughout the mission:                    
                                                                              
* Solar Oppositions: The Earth was between spacecraft and Sun,                
resulting in a degradation of the command link to the spacecraft.             
                                                                              
* Superior Solar Conjunctions: Sun was between spacecraft and Earth,          
resulting in a degradation of the command and telemetry link to/from          
the spacecraft.                                                               
                                                                              
Table below shows the solar conjunction phases throughout the mission         
with type, begin and duration of the conjunction and corresponding            
mission phase. The phases are defined as the periods, during which            
the Sun-SpaceCraft-Earth (SSCE) angle is below 5 degrees.                     
                                                                              
.-------------------------------------------------------------------.         
|     Type      |Duration|   Begin    |    End     | Mission Phase  |         
|---------------|--------|------------|------------|----------------|         
| Conjunction 1 |   48d  | 21/03/2006 | 07/05/2006 |   Cruise 2     |         
| Conjunction 2 |   39d  | 08/12/2008 | 15/01/2009 |  Cruise 4-2    |         
| Conjunction 3 |   50d  | 22/09/2010 | 10/11/2010 | RV Manoeuver 1 |         
| Opposition 1  |   37d  | 13/04/2011 | 19/05/2011 | RV Manoeuver 1 |         
| Conjunction 4 |   64d  | 15/10/2011 | 17/12/2011 |   Cruise 6     |         
| Opposition 2  |   47d  | 30/04/2012 | 15/06/2012 |   Cruise 6     |         
| Conjunction 5 |   67d  | 31/10/2012 | 05/01/2013 |   Cruise 6     |         
| Opposition 3  |   46d  | 20/05/2013 | 04/07/2013 |   Cruise 6     |         
| Conjunction 6 |   60d  | 24/11/2013 | 22/01/2014 |   Cruise 6     |         
| Opposition 4  |   28d  | 25/06/2014 | 22/07/2014 | RV Manoeuver 2 |         
| Conjunction 7 |   41d  | 21/01/2015 | 02/03/2015 | Comet Escort   |         
'--------------------------------------------------------------------         
                                                                              
It can be noted that for archive purpose and because of the non               
expected landing, which included rebounds, the Lander team provided           
the data sets from wake up up to the First Science Sequence (FSS) in 5        
data sets with sub mission phases that differ from the official ones.         
The table below lists these sub phases:                                       
                                                                              
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
| PHC  | Post Hibernation | 2014-04-09T08:15:25 | 2014-04-23T15:45:13|        
|      | Commissioning    |                     |                    |        
|------|------------------|---------------------|--------------------|        
| PDCS | Pre Delivery     | 2014-07-13T14:42:56 | 2014-10-17T20:31:20|        
|      | Calib Science    |                     |                    |        
|------|------------------|---------------------|--------------------|        
| SDL  | Separation       | 2014-11-12T08:35:02 | 2014-11-12T15:34:04|        
|      | Descent Landing  |                     |                    |        
|------|------------------|---------------------|--------------------|        
| RBD  | Rebounds         | 2014-11-12T15:34:05 | 2014-11-12T17:30:20|        
|------|------------------|---------------------|--------------------|        
| FSS  | First Science    | 2014-11-12T17:30:21 | 2014-11-15T01:00:00|        
|      | Sequence         |                     |                    |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
                                                                              
The Orbiter instruments use the phase Prelanding (PRL) to deliver the         
data from wake-up to FSS.                                                     
                                                                              
Mission Phases Description                                                    
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP)                                           
-----------------------------                                                 
Rosetta was launched by an Ariane 5/G+ in a dedicated flight (single          
launch configuration) from Kourou at 07:17:51 UTC 2 March 2004. After         
burnout of the lower composite, the upper stage together with the             
spacecraft remained in an eccentric coast arc for nearly 2 hours.             
Then the upper stage performed delayed ignition and injected the              
Rosetta spacecraft into the required escape hyperbola.                        
                                                                              
After spacecraft separation from the upper stage, Rosetta acquired            
its three axes stabilised Sun pointing attitude and deployed the solar        
arrays autonomously. Ground operations acquired the down-link in              
S-band using the ESA network and controlled the spacecraft to a fine-         
pointing attitude with the HGA pointing towards Earth using X-band            
telemetry. Tracking and orbit determination were performed, the               
departure trajectory was verified and corrected by the on-board               
propulsion system of the spacecraft.                                          
                                                                              
The launch locks of the Lander Philae were released at the end of the         
first ground station pass. Philae remained firmly attached to the             
spacecraft by the cruise latches until its release at the comet.              
                                                                              
Commissioning phase (1 and 2)                                                 
-------------------                                                           
Commissioning started three days after launch following the first             
trajectory correction manoeuvre. A Deep Space Manoeuver (DSM1) of 173         
m/s was executed at perihelion. All spacecraft functions needed during        
the cruise to the comet, in particular for hibernation, were checked          
and the scientific payload was commissioned.                                  
                                                                              
Commissioning was done in two parts, as the New Norcia ground station         
must have been shared with Mars Express and could not be used                 
by Rosetta from June to mid-September 2004.                                   
                                                                              
For more information refer to the following reports:                          
[RO-EST-RP-3293] Consolidated Rosetta Payload Report of the Mission           
Commissioning Results Review                                                  
[RO-EST-RP-3307] RSOC_Commissioning_Results_Report_2005Dec19.pdf              
[RO-EST-RP-3343] Interference Scenario Report                                 
                                                                              
Cruise phase 1                                                                
--------------                                                                
Almost all the scientific instruments, except ALICE were switched off         
while ground contact was practically not available. No payload                
operations were done during this phase.                                       
                                                                              
Earth swing-by 1                                                              
----------------                                                              
The actual Earth swing-by took place on 4-Mar-05. The phase ended one         
month after the swing-by and the spacecraft was prepared for the next         
cruise phase to Mars.                                                         
One passive Payload Checkout was scheduled end of March 2005.                 
Immediately after this flyby an Asteroid Flyby Mode Simulation was            
performed using the Moon as a target. Some limited payload operations         
were permitted shortly before during and shortly after this Earth             
Flyby. Rosetta payload teams were given the opportunity to conduct            
scientific investigation that included close approach of both the             
Earth and the Moon and the AFM simulation. Any activities that did not        
require the Earth-Moon system i.e. continued instrument commissioning,        
were considered for later in the Mission, such as during the next             
active checkout.                                                              
                                                                              
The instrument objectives are listed below.                                   
                                                                              
ORBITER                                                                       
                                                                              
  ALICE                                                                       
    - Flat field calibration                                                  
    - Extended object scattered light calibration (Moon as the target)        
    - Absolute solar calibration                                              
    - Absolute flux and wavelength calibration (wide part of the slit         
    to take in the Moon)                                                      
    - Door performance test due to anomalies raised during                    
    commissioning                                                             
                                                                              
  MIRO                                                                        
    - Asteroid Flyby Simulation test                                          
    - H2O lines in Earth (high quality data obtained but analysis not         
    complete)                                                                 
    - Radiometric calibration of the Moon                                     
                                                                              
  RPC                                                                         
    - Sensor calibration                                                      
    - Magnetospheric physics                                                  
    - Verification of the science operations modes for the Mars flyby         
                                                                              
  RSI                                                                         
    - HGA to Earth around closest approach to Moon                            
                                                                              
  OSIRIS                                                                      
    - Because of technical issues OSIRIS was not operated during the          
    Earth Swing-By itself.                                                    
                                                                              
                                                                              
  VIRTIS                                                                      
    - Co-alignment M/H                                                        
    - Aldebaran target in IR (failed, boresight did not detect the            
    target)                                                                   
    - Absolute calibration using the Moon                                     
    - Full disc Earth imaging including exosphere over one rotation           
                                                                              
LANDER                                                                        
                                                                              
  CIVA                                                                        
    - Earth Picture with Camera #2 or 4                                       
                                                                              
  ROMAP with RPC MAG                                                          
    - magnetic axes alignment of sensors with Earth magnetic field            
    - Checking of scaled values with known Earth values                       
    - Solar wind values comparison with other s/c                             
                                                                              
                                                                              
Problems:                                                                     
                                                                              
  RPC                                                                         
    - Loss of LAP science data for 41.5 hours (2005-03-01 19:00 --            
    2005-04-03 12:30).                                                        
For more information refer to the following reports:                          
[RO-EST-RP-3318] Payload Passive Checkout 0 Report                            
[RO-EST-RP-3321] Rosetta Earth-Swingby #1 Payload Operations Report           
                                                                              
Cruise phase 2 (and Deep Impact)                                              
--------------------------------                                              
After leaving the Earth, the spacecraft made one revolution around the        
Sun, and in the second arc from perihelion to aphelion made a swing-by        
of Mars.                                                                      
                                                                              
There was a solar conjunction for more than one month in April 2006           
(see Solar Conjunctions section above). Two passive check-outs with           
non-interactive instrument operations for about 5 days were scheduled         
during the cruise to Mars. PC1 occurred from 5/09/2005 to 5/10/2005.          
PC2 took place from 3/03/2006 to 8/03/2006.                                   
                                                                              
The NASA Deep Impact mission encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 4 July          
2005, which fell into the Cruise 2 mission phase. At around 06:00             
UTC, the mother probe sent a 362 kg impactor into the nucleus with a          
relative speed of 10.2 km/s. Rosetta was in a privileged position for         
its remote sensing instruments to observe the event (80 million km            
distance, 90 degrees angle respect to the sun). Rosetta monitored             
Tempel 1 continuously (i.e. 24 hrs per day) over an extended period           
from 7 days before the deep impact to 11 days afterwards (27Jun-15Jul         
2005). The first 2 days ALICE observed the stars for calibration. From        
the 28th June to the 15th July, OSIRIS, ALICE, and MIRO operated              
observing comet 9P/Tempel 1 continuously. VIRTIS was on only several          
hours around the impact. Maintenance activities were carried out for          
COSIMA, ROSINA, ALICE.                                                        
                                                                              
During the Deep Impact subphase, the instruments had the following            
objectives:                                                                   
                                                                              
ORBITER                                                                       
                                                                              
  ALICE                                                                       
    - Baseline pre-impact spectrum. Comparison with near and long             
    term post impact spectra. The comet was detected in all spectra.          
    - Strong atomic lines of neutral H and O were detected throughout         
    the observation period.                                                   
    - Two weak lines of neutral C detected on some dates. No change           
    detected by ALICE in comet's UV spectrum as a result of impact            
    - except for possible enhancement in C emission.                          
    - No evidence of Ar, S, N, CO.                                            
    - Water production rates. Results TBC.                                    
    - Dark histograms.                                                        
    - Calibration star before the encounter. Spectra of calibration           
    star was used for calibration of the Deep Impact spectra and              
    instrument sensitivity. The data was also used to look for any            
    flux variations due to pointing/jitter (initial results did not           
    show any evidence of significant fluctuations in the stellar              
    count rate).                                                              
    - Memory patch (time synchronisation issue).                              
                                                                              
  MIRO                                                                        
    - Changes in the coma composition induced by the impact.                  
    - Upper limit on the water production rate in the pre-impact              
    phase of the experiment. Water production rate and albeit                 
    with low signal-to-noise measured in the post impact phase. The           
    water production rate was less than had been anticipated based            
    on models.                                                                
    - Detection of carbon monoxide: the analysis was not complete but         
    so far no CO was detected.                                                
    - Estimate of Doppler velocity.                                           
                                                                              
  OSIRIS                                                                      
    - Accurate photometry of the unresolved nucleus (no atmosphere in         
    between) with complete time coverage. The time resolution was             
    better than a minute around the impact and could draw conclusion          
    about the evolution of the impact cloud during the first hour.            
    The long term monitoring allowed determination of the composition         
    and evolution of the impact cloud (water production and dust/ice          
    ratio)                                                                    
    - UV coverage that allowed imaging of the OH emission at 308nm            
    (estimate of the water production by the impact)                          
    - Imaging of the coma out to at least 150000km from the nucleus.          
    The effect of the impact could be seen in the images for                  
    approximately a week (stereo reconstruction of coma,                      
    impact cloud).                                                            
                                                                              
  VIRTIS                                                                      
    - Coma and ejecta composition and temporal evolution. But the             
    outburst due to the impact was not energetic enough to reach the          
    minimum sensitivity required.                                             
                                                                              
Conclusions of the Deep Impact Observations:                                  
                                                                              
The science objectives of the Deep Impact Observations scenario were          
met. The brightness increase of Tempel 1 produced by the impact was           
lower than we had hoped for, and as a result the comet was too weak to        
be detected by VIRTIS. For ALICE and MIRO the signal was just above           
the sensitivity limit, but nevertheless important measurements could          
be achieved. The results of OSIRIS even exceeded the expectations, and        
the first scientific publications were widely cited. The data                 
collected by the experiments on board Rosetta are unique because              
Tempel 1 was monitored continuously over an extended period of time           
(no day-and-night cycle in contrast to ground-based telescopes) and in        
the absence of an absorbing atmosphere.                                       
                                                                              
The following operations was done during the Passive checkout 1:              
                                                                              
ORBITER                                                                       
                                                                              
  ALICE                                                                       
    - Electronic and software                                                 
    - Test pattern and stim test                                              
    - Memory check                                                            
    - dark exposures                                                          
    There was no instrument anomalies. The door performance test              
    showed nominal behavior.                                                  
                                                                              
  CONSERT                                                                     
    - Consert Orbiter verification                                            
    - Consert Lander verification                                             
    - Consert Orbiter/Lander time synchronisation                             
                                                                              
  COSIMA                                                                      
    - Self check                                                              
    - Target manipulator unit maintenance                                     
    - Ion emitter maintenance                                                 
                                                                              
  GIADA                                                                       
    - Run mechanisms - cover operations                                       
    - Health check (all subsystems, electronics, noise and                    
    contamination monitoring, performances estimation)                        
                                                                              
  MIDAS                                                                       
    - Exercising of all mechanisms (shutter, approach mechanism,              
    linear stage, wheel, scanner)                                             
    The test was successful and MIDAS is fully operable.                      
                                                                              
  MIRO                                                                        
    - Regular exercise and health check of all commands in all modes          
    - Regular dump of EEPROM memory to check for radiation damage.            
    All objectives were met. There was no radiation damage of the             
    EEPROM.                                                                   
                                                                              
  RPC                                                                         
    - MAG: instrument calibration. Undisturbed solar wind was measured        
    to calibrate the offsets of the MAG instrument in quiet conditions        
    (Hedgecock method).                                                       
    - LAP: instrument calibration.                                            
    - MIP: Instrument checkout                                                
    - IES: measurement in the undisturbed solar wind for calibration          
    of its sensors and cross calibration with LAP.                            
    The PC operations were completed successfully with no change in           
    instrument performance for MAG and IES.                                   
                                                                              
  RSI                                                                         
    Two frequency downlink driven by the USO and a ground station             
    that could receive the X and S band signals.                              
    - Investigate the stability of the USO                                    
    - Verify interaction with the ground                                      
    Investigations of the USO data from PC#0 revealed that the                
    behaviour of the USO was obviously not as good as it had been             
    during the last USO test in October.                                      
                                                                              
  OSIRIS                                                                      
    - Exercise the instrument mechanisms                                      
    - Verify the sanity of the CCD                                            
    - Verify the focus                                                        
    No anomaly occurred.                                                      
                                                                              
                                                                              
LANDER                                                                        
  Test of the Lander Platform overall performance                             
  Secondary battery monitoring                                                
  Lander extended AFT                                                         
  CDMS EEPROM dump                                                            
  functional test for                                                         
    PTOLEMY                                                                   
    CONSERT                                                                   
                                                                              
The following operations have been done during the Passive checkout 2:        
                                                                              
ORBITER                                                                       
                                                                              
  ALICE                                                                       
    - same health tests as PC1. Tests successful.                             
                                                                              
  CONSERT                                                                     
    - same as PC1. Tests generally successful (see report)                    
                                                                              
  COSIMA                                                                      
    - self check of all hardware sub-systems on operational voltage           
    levels                                                                    
    - target manipulator unit checkout                                        
    - maintenance COSISCOPE checkout                                          
    - emitter maintenance                                                     
    Tests generally successful.                                               
                                                                              
  GIADA                                                                       
    - Same as PC1 plus monitoring of MBS coating evolution.                   
    The cover operations went fine. There was no further contamination        
    of the microbalances. GDS is not fully tested for light                   
    conditions. IS seems nominal. All HK values were as expected.             
                                                                              
  MIDAS                                                                       
    - same as PC1. Tests were successful.                                     
                                                                              
  MIRO                                                                        
    - Same as PC1. Overall success.                                           
                                                                              
  RPC                                                                         
    - Same as PC1. All performances checked were nominal.                     
                                                                              
  RSI                                                                         
    - Same as PC1. The USO behaved very good, USO drift satisfactory.         
                                                                              
  OSIRIS                                                                      
    - Same as PC1. Generally successful. For solar elongation                 
    angles < 90 degrees OSIRIS got substantial scattered light                
    through the nominally closed doors. The scattered light observed          
    during PC2 was unfortunately enough that parts of the CCD surface         
    was saturated. This happened in spite of the large exposure time          
    reduction that was made after PC1.                                        
                                                                              
  VIRTIS                                                                      
    - The check done were performed properly.                                 
                                                                              
LANDER                                                                        
  Same as PC1 plus functional tests for                                       
    MUPUS                                                                     
    CONSERT                                                                   
                                                                              
For more information refer to the following reports:                          
[RO-EST-RP-3341] Deep Impact Observations, Payload Operations Report          
[RO-EST-RP-3342] Passive Payload Checkout 1 Report                            
[RO-EST-RP-3418] Passive Payload Checkout 2 Report                            
                                                                              
Mars swing-by                                                                 
-------------                                                                 
The mission phase began two months before DSM2 of 65 m/s, which was           
performed near perihelion. The actual Mars swing-by took place on             
25-Feb-07. The minimum altitude with respect to the Martian surface           
was 200 km. The relative approach and departure velocity was 8.8 km/s.        
During the swing-by a communications black-out of approximately 14            
min was expected due to occultation of the spacecraft by Mars.                
Furthermore the spacecraft was expected to be in eclipse for about 24         
min. The phase ended one month after DSM3. DSM3 of 129 m/s was                
scheduled near the aphelion of this arc in order to obtain the proper         
arrival conditions at the Earth. Two passive payload check-outs of            
about 5 days and an active longer one of 25 days were scheduled during        
the phase (PC3, PC4, PC5).                                                    
                                                                              
PC3 started on 25th August 2006 and ended 30th August 2006.                   
The following operations were planed during PC3. GIADA and ROSINA did         
not take part in this PC.                                                     
                                                                              
ORBITER                                                                       
  ALICE                                                                       
    - Electronics & software verification, test pattern and stim test,        
    Memory Check, Aperture Door, Performance Test.                            
    All operations are executed as expected.                                  
                                                                              
  CONSERT                                                                     
    - Consert Orbiter verification, Consert Lander verification,              
    Consert Orbiter/Lander time Synchronisation.                              
                                                                              
  COSIMA                                                                      
    - self check of all hardware sub-systems on operational voltage           
    levels, target manipulator unit checkout and maintenance emitter          
    maintenance                                                               
                                                                              
  MIDAS                                                                       
    - Regular health check and exercising of all mechanisms (shutter,         
    approach mechanism, linear stage, wheel, scanner)                         
                                                                              
  MIRO                                                                        
    - Regular exercise and health check of all commands in all modes.         
    Regular dump of EEPROM memory to check for radiation damage.              
    All operations are successful.                                            
                                                                              
  RPC                                                                         
    - MAG: Instrument calibration. Undisturbed solar wind measurement.        
    Such data will be used to calibrate the offsets of the MAG                
    instrument in quiet conditions (Hedgecock method).                        
    - LAP: Instrument calibration.                                            
    - MIP: Instrument checkout.                                               
    - IES: measurements in the undisturbed solar wind for calibration         
    of its sensors and crosscalibration with LAP.                             
                                                                              
  RSI                                                                         
    - Investigate the stability of the USO and verify interaction             
    with the ground.                                                          
    The PC3 results were very promising and the behavior of the USO           
    is as good as expected. The stability of the USO was still one            
    order of magnitude better than anticipated before launch.                 
                                                                              
  OSIRIS                                                                      
    - Instrument mechanisms, verify the sanity of the CCD, verify the         
    focus of the instrument.                                                  
                                                                              
  VIRTIS                                                                      
    - Both VIRTIS M and H were working as expected.                           
    - PC3 was used to verify the upload of a new pixel map for                
    VIRTIS-H to be used during the forthcoming PC4 (pixel map allowed         
    to drastically reduce the data volume).                                   
                                                                              
LANDER                                                                        
  - Test of the Lander platform to check the overall performance and          
  Secondary Battery Status                                                    
  - Lander Extended AFT with short function                                   
  - tests of some units and                                                   
  EEPROM                                                                      
  - checks for all ComDPU units                                               
  - Secondary Battery Monitoring                                              
  - CDMS EEPROM dump                                                          
  - Separate short functional tests for MUPUS and CONSERT                     
                                                                              
PC4 was an active checkout. It started on Nov., 23rd and ended on             
Dec., 22nd 2006. All Rosetta payload instruments took part in this            
scenario.                                                                     
                                                                              
ALICE                                                                         
    - Passive Check out                                                       
    - Optics Decontamination                                                  
    - HV and detector tests                                                   
    - Calibrations, performance                                               
    - Stare observations of Saturn and Vega                                   
                                                                              
CONSERT                                                                       
    - Passive 6 months Status Check                                           
                                                                              
NAVCAM                                                                        
    - Calibration                                                             
                                                                              
COSIMA                                                                        
    - Maintenance Procedure                                                   
    - Cosiscope operation                                                     
                                                                              
GIADA                                                                         
    - Passive 6 months status check                                           
    - Settings test                                                           
                                                                              
LANDER                                                                        
    - Lander interactive and non interactive operations                       
                                                                              
MIDAS                                                                         
    - Check out and mechanism activation                                      
    - s/w upload and functional check out                                     
    - Calibration                                                             
    - High resolution image of a dust collector facet                         
                                                                              
MIRO                                                                          
    - Passive Status Check                                                    
                                                                              
ROSINA                                                                        
    - DPU s/w Patch                                                           
    - COPS microtips                                                          
    - DFMS cover and modes                                                    
    - RTOF delta commissioning                                                
                                                                              
RPC                                                                           
    - Passive Check out and calibrations                                      
    - IES noisy channels test, upload patches and tables                      
    - LDL failure investigation                                               
    - Upload new LAP macros                                                   
    - MIP new seq test                                                        
    - Mars Swing By rehearsal                                                 
    - ROMAP/RPC co operation                                                  
    - MAG continuous operation                                                
    - Upload temporary patch for directional resolution improvement           
                                                                              
RSI                                                                           
    - Passive two frequency downlink                                          
                                                                              
SREM                                                                          
    - Continuous operation                                                    
                                                                              
OSIRIS                                                                        
    - Passive 6 months Check                                                  
    - Bias, darks, charge transfer efficiency with doors closed               
    - Patch s/w                                                               
    - Staring observations                                                    
    - Calibration and Mars Fly By preparation                                 
                                                                              
VIRTIS                                                                        
    - H and M calibrations                                                    
                                                                              
Although several open issues were resolved in this checkout, several          
issues remain open and new anomaly report were generated.                     
75% of the planned operations were successful. The 25% loss was mainly        
due to OSIRIS that lost the majority of its operations.                       
                                                                              
PC5 is a Passive Check Out that started on May, 18th and ended on May,        
23rd 2007. The instruments that took part in this PC are listed below:        
ALICE, CONSERT, COSIMA, GIADA, LANDER, MIDAS, MIRO, RPC, RSI, OSIRIS.         
VIRTIS was NOGO and did not operate.                                          
Main objectives of the scenario have been met with no issues.                 
                                                                              
Payload checkout reports:                                                     
[RO-SGS-RP-0001]                                                              
_Rosetta_Passive_Payload_Checkout_3_Report_2007Jun27.pdf                      
[RO-EST-RP-3464]                                                              
_Rosetta_Report_Active_Payload_Checkout_4_2006Apr13.pdf                       
[RO-SGS-RP-0002]                                                              
_Rosetta_Passive_Payload_Checkout_5_Report_2007June27.pdf                     
                                                                              
Cruise phase 3                                                                
--------------                                                                
No check-outs were scheduled during the short cruise to Earth.                
                                                                              
Earth swing-by 2                                                              
----------------                                                              
Daily operations started again around two months before Rosetta               
reached Earth with tracking and navigation manoeuvres. The actual             
Earth swing-by took place on 13-Nov-07. The perigee altitude was              
13890 km. The relative approach and departure velocity was 9.3 km/s.          
The phase ended one month after the LGA strobing phase. In this phase         
the spacecraft got very close to the sun (min distance 0.91AU). One 15        
day payload checkout and one 5 day payload checkout were also                 
scheduled in this phase (PC6 and PC7).                                        
                                                                              
Payload Checkout 6 (PC6) was an active checkout where a target                
independent opportunity to perform interactive operations and to              
request spacecraft pointing was given to all Rosetta payload teams.           
The active payload checkout 6 ran for 15 consecutive days starting on         
the 13th September 2007 until the 29th September 2006.                        
All Rosetta payload took part in this scenario. Operations ranged from        
a repeat of established passive checkout operations to extensive              
software patching and calibration campaigns. Four instruments required        
active spacecraft pointing during the scenario with nine different            
targets observed. Pointing types were 7 stares, 2 slew scans, 2 raster        
scans giving a total of around 176 hours of dedicated spacecraft              
pointing. These were mostly for calibration purposes.                         
Overall operations went smoothly. Although several open issues were           
resolved in this checkout several issues remained open and new ones           
have been generated.                                                          
                                                                              
Payload Checkout 7 (PC7) was a passive checkout run form 4th January          
2008 to 9th January 2008. Main objectives have been met with no issue         
apart from GD. This issue was due to higher operating temperatures            
resulting from the short Sun-Spacecraft distance.                             
                                                                              
The Payload checkout reports are:                                             
[RO-SGS-RP-0004]                                                              
_Rosetta_Report_Active_Payload_Checkout_6_2007Oct30.doc                       
[RO-SGS-RP-0005]                                                              
_Rosetta_Passive_Payload_Checkout_7_Report_2008Jun24.pdf.                     
                                                                              
Cruise phase 4 (split into 4-1 and 4-2)                                       
--------------                                                                
In this phase the spacecraft made one revolution around the Sun.              
A solar conjunction took place in January 2009 (see Solar Conjunctions        
section above), together with another two conjunctions of the Earth-          
spacecraft- Sun angle (Sun-Earth conjunction as seen from the                 
spacecraft). In this phase the spacecraft got very close to the sun           
(min distance 0.91AU). This Cruise phase has been splitted in two             
parts after the selection of the first Asteroid flyby which fell              
in the middle of this phase. Cruise 4-1 was before the flyby phase,           
and 4-2 was right after. Two passive check-outs were scheduled, one           
during Cruise 4-1 and the second one during Cruise 4-2.                       
                                                                              
During CR4, Passive Checkout 9 and Active Checkout 8 were planned.            
                                                                              
Payload Checkout 8 (PC8) was an active checkout where a target                
independent opportunity to perform interactive operations and to              
request spacecraft pointing was given to all Rosetta payload teams.           
All Rosetta payload took part in this scenario.                               
The Active Payload Checkout 8 ran for 2 days (05-06 July 2008) plus 26        
consecutive days starting on the 9th July 2008 until the 1st August           
2008.                                                                         
Three instruments required active spacecraft pointing during the              
scenario with 9 different targets observed. Pointing types were 14            
stares and 3 raster scans. These were mostly for calibration purposes.        
                                                                              
Payload Checkout 9(PC9) was a passive checkout executed between 28th          
January and 2nd February 2009. An RSI passive checkout was also               
completed on 09th February. All but 2 of the Rosetta payload                  
instruments participated in the scenario, the exceptions being Rosina         
and Virtis. Operations were limited to instrument health checks and           
passive checkouts, as is the case for nominal Passive Checkout                
scenarios. All of the operations planned and executed in the PC09             
scenario were successful (as detailed in Section 3). Minor issues were        
observed by 2 instruments (CN and RS) but none of these prevented the         
successful completion of the corresponding operations.                        
                                                                              
The Payload checkout reports are:                                             
[RO-SGS-RP-0019]                                                              
_Rosetta_Report_Active_Payload_Checkout_8_2011Jul25.pdf                       
[RO-SGS-RP-0030]                                                              
_Rosetta_Report_Passive_Payload_Checkout_9_2011Jul20.pdf                      
                                                                              
                                                                              
Steins flyby                                                                  
-------------                                                                 
Asteroid Steins was the first dedicated scientific target of the              
Rosetta mission. Closest approach was on 5 September 2008 at 18:38:22         
UTC. Rosetta flew at 800 km from asteroid Steins. For the first time a        
European spacecraft flew next to an asteroid, performed an optical            
navigation campaign, and autonomously tracked the asteroid by means of        
its on board camera.                                                          
                                                                              
The 2867 Steins E-type asteroid had been discovered on 4 November 1969        
by N. Chernykh. Its dimensions have been estimated by [KELLERETAL2010]        
to 6.67 x 5.81 x 4.47 km3, corresponding to a spherical equivalent            
radius of 2.65 km. Its sidereal rotation period has been estimated to         
6.04681 +/- 0.00002h, its pole direction in ecliptic coordinates to           
approximately Lambda = 250 deg and Beta = -89 deg with an error of            
about 5 degrees [LAMYETAL2008]. Its albedo has been estimated to 0.3          
in the visible and 0.4 in the infrared, both by [KELLERETAL2010] and          
[LAMYETAL2008].                                                               
                                                                              
The two asteroids Rosetta flew by are secondary science targets of the        
Rosetta mission, with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko being the               
primary science target. Therefore, scientific measurements of Asteroid        
(2867) Steins had highest priority. Some calibrations were also               
performed during the flyby phase.                                             
                                                                              
The flyby geometry necessitated a flip in the spacecraft attitude             
before closest approach. As a compromise between the incompatible             
requirements to minimize the illumination of the -X and +-Y panels of         
the spacecraft (flip as late as possible) and to minimize the impact          
on the science observations (flip as early as possible), the                  
spacecraft flip was performed between 40 and 20 minutes before closest        
approach. Rosetta's relative speed with respect to Steins was 8.6km/s.        
                                                                              
The heliocentric and geocentric distances of Rosetta during the Steins        
flyby were 2.14 AU and 2.41 AU, respectively. The one way light travel        
time was 20 minutes.                                                          
                                                                              
The estimated accuracy of the determination of the position of Steins         
in the plane perpendicular to the flight direction during the naviga-         
-tion campaign was +/-2 kms for navigation with OSIRIS and +/-16 kms          
for navigation with the NAVCAMs (from navigation slot on Sept. 4). For        
the targeted passage through phase angle 0 at a distance of 1280 kms          
from Steins, a positional offset of 2 kms would correspond to a               
minimum phase angle of 0.1 degree.                                            
                                                                              
The following table shows an overview of the Steins Flyby scenario:           
                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------            
| Start Date | End Date   | Operation                             |           
------------------------------------------------------------------            
| 04/08/2008 | 04/09/2008 | Navigation campaign (astrometry) using|           
|            |            | NAVCAM and OSIRIS NAC                 |           
------------------------------------------------------------------            
| 01/09/2008 | 10/09/2008 | Scientific operations targeting the   |           
|            |            | asteroid                              |           
------------------------------------------------------------------            
| 07/09/2008 | 04/10/2008 | Observation of gravitational          |           
|            |            | microlensing events in the galactic   |           
|            |            | bulge by OSIRIS                       |           
-------------------------------------------------------------------           
                                                                              
The following table shows the observation results per instrument:             
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
| Instrument|      Title              |Success| Comments             |        
----------------------------------------------------------------------        
| ALICE 01  | Alice optics            | Yes   | at the beginning and |        
|           | decontamination         |       | end of all scenarios |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 02  | Standard stellar flux   | Yes   | During major         |        
|           | calibration using the AL|       | scenarios            |        
|           | narrow center boresight |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 03  | Standard stellar flux   | Yes   | During major         |        
|           | calibration using the AL|       | scenarios            |        
|           | +X wide bottom boresight|       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 04  | Dark exposures          | Yes   | Regular calibration  |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 05  | Search for evidence of  | Yes   | No exosphere or coma |        
|           | exosphere/coma around   |       | found                |        
|           | Steins                  |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 06  | Point at Steins to      | Yes   | First Spectrum of an |        
|           | obtain an FUV spectrum  |       | asteroid below 200nm |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 07  | Point to the Steins RA  | Yes   |                      |        
|           | and Dec at the mid point|       |                      |        
|           | of AL 06 observation    |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 08  | Point to the Steins RA  | Yes   |                      |        
|           | and Dec at the mid point|       |                      |        
|           | of AL 05 observation    |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ALICE 09  | Standard stellar flux   | Yes   | During major         |        
|           | calibration using the AL|       | scenarios            |        
|           | -X wide top boresight   |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| COSIMA 01 | Image and expose D8     | No    | TMU error            |        
|           | substrate               |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| COSIMA 02 | Image all D8 substrates | No    | Cancelled after      |        
|           | and store it            |       | failure of CS 01     |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| GIADA 01  | non nominal operational | Yes   |                      |        
|           | configuration, i.e. only|       |                      |        
|           | impact sensor on and    |       |                      |        
|           | cover closed            |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| LANDER 01 | Run MUPUS TEM mode      | Yes   |                      |        
|           | during periods with     |       |                      |        
|           | pronounced temperature  |       |                      |        
|           | changes                 |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| LANDER 02 | Operate ROMAP in slow   | Yes   | Interference from    |        
|           | mode and fast mode      |       | MUPUS detected       |        
|           | during CA +/-30min      |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| LANDER 03 | CASSE measurements      | Yes   |                      |        
|           | during WOL with SW FM-2 |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| LANDER 04 | Thermal test of SESAME  | Yes   |                      |        
|           | soles                   |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| LANDER 05 | Operation of CASSE and  | Yes   |                      |        
|           | DIM  in a dusty environ-|       |                      |        
|           | -ment                   |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| MIRO 01   | Observation of Steins   | Yes   |                      |        
|           | during approach         |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| MIRO 02   | Run Asteroid Mode       | Yes   | Pointing inaccuracy  |        
|           | sequence at closest     |       | during Asteroid Flyby|        
|           | approach to Steins      |       | mode affects scienti-|        
|           |                         |       | -fic output          |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| MIRO 03   | Observation of Steins   | Yes   |                      |        
|           | during Recession        |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ROSINA 01 | Outgassing              | Yes   |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ROSINA 02 | Single mass measurement | Yes   | Contamination issue  |        
|           | sequence                |       | due to s/c flip.     |        
|           |                         |       | Sw instability caused|        
|           |                         |       | temporary switch-off |        
|           |                         |       | of detector          |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| ROSINA 03 | Pressure monitoring     | Yes   | Contamination issue  |        
|           |                         |       | due to s/c flip      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| RPC 01    | Steins Fly by           | Mostly| ICA did not produce  |        
|           |                         |       | scientifically useful|        
|           |                         |       | data due to a comman-|        
|           |                         |       | -ding error.         |        
|           |                         |       | Interference from    |        
|           |                         |       | MUPUS detected       |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| RSI 01    | Coherent measurement    | TBD   | TBD                  |        
|           | with Xup/Xdown or Xup/  |       |                      |        
|           | Sdown received by a     |       |                      |        
|           | groundstation capable of|       |                      |        
|           | receiving X- and S- band|       |                      |        
|           | Doppler and Ranging     |       |                      |        
|           | Signals                 |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| SREM 01   | SREM standard           | YES   | No Steins specific   |        
|           | accumulation            |       | operations, general  |        
|           |                         |       | particle flux        |        
|           |                         |       | monitoring           |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 01 | Vega Stare              | Yes   | Stellar calibrations |        
|           |                         |       | repeated during major|        
|           |                         |       | scenarios            |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 02 | 16 Cyg Stare            | Yes   | Stellar calibrations |        
|           |                         |       | repeated during major|        
|           |                         |       | scenarios            |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 03 | Steins Lightcurve at    | Yes   | TBD                  |        
|           | CA-2 weeks              |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 04 | Steins Lightcurve at    | Mostly| WAC data compromised |        
|           | CA-24 hours             |       | by overexposure      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 05 | Steins observation at CA| Mostly| NAC went into Safe   |        
|           |                         |       | mode due to shutter  |        
|           |                         |       | issues about 10 min  |        
|           |                         |       | before CA            |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 06 | Fast imaging sequence   | Yes   | observation merged   |        
|           | around the time of phase|       | with OSIRIS 05       |        
|           | angle 0                 |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| OSIRIS 07 | Characterization of     | Yes   | TBD                  |        
|           | solar straylight for    |       |                      |        
|           | same orientation as the |       |                      |        
|           | one the s/c had when    |       |                      |        
|           | the OSIRIS hill sphere  |       |                      |        
|           | dust search was         |       |                      |        
|           | performed               |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| VIRTIS 01 | VIRTIS-M lightcurve of  | Yes   | TBD                  |        
|           | Steins                  |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| VIRTIS 02 | V-M and V-H operating;  | Yes   | Operations were      |        
|           |s/c stare at target Nadir|       |affected by inaccuracy|        
|           | looking; continuous     |       | of s/c pointing      |        
|           | acquisition in pushbroom|       |                      |        
|           | mode                    |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
| VIRTIS 03 | V-M and V-H continuous  |  Yes  | TBD                  |        
|           |observation of Steins for|       |                      |        
|           | 1 hour after VR02; V-M  |       |                      |        
|           | in image mode (10 lines |       |                      |        
|           | scan)                   |       |                      |        
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|        
                                                                              
                                                                              
The Rosetta first asteroid flyby was a success. The navigation                
campaign produced highly accurate predictions of the Steins position,         
and during the flyby most instruments worked without serious problems.        
Asteroid flyby mode worked well, although with somewhat lower tracking        
accuracy than expected.                                                       
                                                                              
Summary results per instrument during closest approach can be found in        
the operation report:                                                         
[RO-SGS-RP-0020] Science Operations Report for the Steins FlyBy               
                                                                              
Earth swing-by 3                                                              
----------------                                                              
Operations were essentially the same as for the Earth swing-by 2. The         
actual Earth swing-by took place in Nov-09. The perigee altitude was          
300 km. The relative approach and departure velocity was 9.9 km/s.            
Phase started 3 months before the swing-by and ends 1 month later. Two        
short payload checkouts of about 5 days each were scheduled during            
this phase.                                                                   
                                                                              
The phase contained the Active Payload Checkout 10 (PC10). The section        
first describes PC 10 and then the Earth Flyby.                               
                                                                              
  PC10                                                                        
  ----                                                                        
  The Active PC10 ran for 18 consecutive days from 18th September 2009        
  to 4th October 2009. It represented a target independent opportunity        
  to perform interactive operations and to request spacecraft                 
  pointing. All payloads took part in this scenario, as interactive           
  or non-interactive operations. There were approximately 425 hours of        
  non-interactive and 68 hours of interactive operations. Four                
  instruments required active s/c pointing with 15 targets observed           
  (111 hours of dedicated s/c pointing). These were mostly for                
  calibration purposes.                                                       
                                                                              
  More details on the results can be found in the report:                     
[RO-SGS-RP-0022] Payload Report Active PC10                                   
                                                                              
  Earth flyby 3 (EAR3)                                                        
  --------------                                                              
  This was the last of the three gravity assists from the Earth, after        
  which Rosetta increased its orbital energy, enough to allow the             
  scheduled encounter with the asteroid 21-Lutetia and the rendezvous         
  with Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From an operational point of view, the          
  swing-by spacecraft operations were of highest priority, and both           
  science observations and payload operations were only allowed on a          
  non-interference basis with those. Keeping this in mind, Rosetta had        
  the opportunity to perform special scientific observations of the           
  Earth-Moon system, instrument calibrations using Earth and/or Moon          
  and public relations observations.                                          
                                                                              
  The criticality of the spacecraft operations left payload operations        
  in a second place, provided that Earth is not a scientific target           
  for Rosetta and that potential trajectory correction manoeuvres             
  would force the cancellation of all of them. This is reflected in           
  the fact that only six instruments took part in the operations:             
  ALICE, MIRO, OSIRIS, RPC, VIRTIS and SREM.                                  
  Operation scheduling was centred on Earth Closest Approach,                 
  which took place on 13 Nov. 2009 at 07:45:40 UTC, and overall               
  operations went smoothly, despite some scattered events.                    
  According to the available reports, the EAR3 can be considered as           
  fully successful.                                                           
                                                                              
EAR3 results are described in [RO-SGS-RP-0023].                               
                                                                              
Cruise phase 5                                                                
--------------                                                                
One Active checkout (12) was scheduled during this cruise phase.              
It can be noted that Passive Checkout 11 were cancelled since there           
was not enough time to include it between PC10 and PC12. PC 11 was            
supposed to be passive meaning that it is mainly instrument                   
health check operations. PC 10 and 12 are active and more important to        
preserve.                                                                     
                                                                              
Payload Checkout 12 (PC12) was an active checkout that ran for 23             
consecutive days starting on the 22nd April 2010 until the 14th May           
2010. All Rosetta payload took part in this scenario. Operations              
ranged from a repeat of established passive checkout operations to            
extensive software patching and calibration campaigns.                        
Overall operations went smoothly. Numerous open issues were resolved          
in this checkout, whilst several issues remain open and new ones have         
been generated. There was a particularly noticeable and positive              
increase in the success rate of payload operations, when compared to          
previous Scenarios.                                                           
                                                                              
All results can be read in [RO-SGS-RP-0027] report.                           
                                                                              
Lutetia Flyby  (17/05/2010 - 03/09/2010)                                      
--------------                                                                
The second of the flybys took place on 10 July 2010 to the asteroid           
21 Lutetia, discovered on 15 November 1852 by H. Goldschmidt. Its             
classification into a specific asteroid type had turned out to be             
ambiguous and included the possibilities of a C-type or an M-type             
asteroid. This contradiction made it an interesting object for close          
inspection.                                                                   
Closest Approach (CA) occurred at 15:45 UT at a distance of 3168.2km.         
The relative fly-by velocity was of 15 km/s. The fly-by strategy              
allowed continuous observations of Lutetia before, during and for 30          
minutes after CA.                                                             
Images obtained by OSIRIS revealed that Lutetia has a complex geology         
and one of the highest asteroid densities measured so far,                    
3.4+/-0.3g/cm3. Its geologically complex surface, ancient surface age         
and high density suggest that Lutetia is most likely a primordial             
planetesimal.                                                                 
This is the second of the two asteroids selected at the Science               
Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the available               
candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interests and the            
propellant required for the correction manoeuvre.                             
                                                                              
The following operations took place around the Lutetia fly-by:                
21 May 2010 - 9 July 2010: Navigation campaign (astrometry) using the         
OSIRIS NAC and NAVCAM.                                                        
5 July 2010- 14 July 2010: scientific operations targeting the                
asteroid.                                                                     
The Lutetia fly-by was a success. The navigation campaign produced            
highly accurate predictions of the position of Lutetia and during             
the fly-by most instruments worked without serious problems (except           
Rosina, RPC IES and RPC ICA). Asteroid fly-by mode worked excellently.        
The objectives summarised below have been addressed by the instrument         
measurements:                                                                 
  - Physical and thermal properties, mineralogy and geomorphology of          
    Lutetia from spatially resolved multi-wavelengths remote-sensing          
    observations between the extreme UV and the mm-range.                     
  - Determination of the mass of the asteroid from Doppler                    
    measurements of the spacecraft trajectory.                                
  - Global shape parameters from light curves taken days before CA.           
  - Search for satellite/dust particles.                                      
  - Search for an asteroid magnetic field.                                    
  - Particle and field measurements.                                          
                                                                              
Results of the Lutetia Fly By can be found in [RO-SGS-RP-0028].               
                                                                              
Rendez-Vous Manoeuver 1   (04/09/2010 - 13/07/2011)                           
----------------------                                                        
The deep space manoeuvre was carried out when the spacecraft reached          
a distance from the Sun around 4.5 AU on 23-Jan-11. One passive check         
-out (13) was scheduled during this phase. One solar conjunction of           
50 days and one solar opposition of 37 days happened during this              
phase.(see Solar Conjunctions section above).                                 
                                                                              
--PC 13 (1st-9th Dec 2010 + 14th Dec)                                         
This was the final Cruise Phase Checkout. A number of additional              
payload operations were also executed, to close out pending and               
essential requirements, and/or to configure instruments for the               
upcoming Deep Space Hibernation Phase. Only OSIRIS did not participate        
in PC 13. PC13 ran for 9 consecutive days between 1st and 9th December        
2010. A RSI passive checkout was also completed on 14th December.             
All of the operations planned and executed were successful. Minor             
issues were observed by 4 instruments (Consert, Philae, Rosina, RPC).         
Alice performed successfully some instrument checkout.                        
Cosima did periodical maintenance and check its status.                       
Giada checked successfully its status.                                        
Midas performed a normal passive check-out and an additional modified         
one for Deep Space Hibernation Preparation.                                   
Miro performed a normal and successful passive check-out.                     
Osiris did not participate in the PC13 timeframe. However, on 23-26th         
March 2011 - post RVM1 - specific OSIRIS operations were performed in         
order to prepare and configure the instrument for the Rosetta Deep            
Space Hibernation.                                                            
The Lander performed some operations and Consert performed an unit            
functional test; both were partially successful.                              
Rosina did not participate in the nominal PC13 scenario, but conducted        
several specific operations immediately following completion of the           
nominal PC13 timeline. A spacecraft slew was executed with RTOF               
monitoring, to further investigate data observed during Lutetia               
fly-by.                                                                       
RPC PIU, IES, LAP, ICA performed checkout with some errors/anomalies          
reported, which were considered as no problem for the instrument.             
Virtis performed the checkout successfully.                                   
RSI measurements during PC13 showed some disturbances. The cause is           
unknown at the time being.                                                    
SREM performed a successful checkout.                                         
                                                                              
More detailed results can be found in [RO-SGS-RP-0029].                       
                                                                              
                                                                              
Cruise phase 6    (8 Jun 2011 - 20 Jan 2014)                                  
--------------                                                                
The whole period was spent in Deep-Space Hibernation Mode (DSHM).             
Maximum distances to Sun and Earth are encountered during this                
period, i.e. 5.3 AU (aphelion) and 6.3 AU, respectively. During this          
phase, 3 superior solar conjunctions and 2 solar oppositions occurred         
(see table above). This phase ended with the Spacecraft wake-up on            
the 20th of January 2014.                                                     
                                                                              
Rendez-Vous Manoeuver 2  (21 Jan 2014 - 9 Sep 2014)                           
----------------------                                                        
The RVM2 started after Spacecraft wake-up and until September 2014,           
when the Global Mapping phase started. It contained the Near Comet            
Drift (NCD), the Far Approach Trajectory (FAT) and the Close Approach         
Trajectory (CAT). It ended with the transition to Global Mapping.             
During this phase, Rosetta did a series of ten OCMs, starting on the          
7 May to reduce its speed with respect to comet 67P/C-G by about              
775 m/s. The first, producing just 20 m/s delta-v ( change in                 
velocity ), was done as a small test burn, as it was the first use of         
the spacecraft s propulsion system after wake-up.                             
                                                                              
--Near comet drift (NCD) phase (21 May 2014 - 2 July 2014)                    
  The following three OCMs form the Near Comet Drift (NCD) phase.             
  They took place every two weeks starting 21 May. They delivered             
  289.6, 269.5 and 88.7 m/s in delta-v, respectively.                         
                                                                              
-- Far Approach Trajectory (FAT)  (2 July - 3 August 2014)                    
  The FAT contained the next four burns. The four FAT burns was               
  carried out weekly during July, and all proceeded nominally. The            
  approach manoeuvre sequence reduced the relative velocity in stages         
  down to 3 m/s.                                                              
  During this phase, the first images of the comet were obtained with         
  the optical measurement system (NAVCAM, OSIRIS). After detection,           
  knowledge of the comet ephemeris was drastically improved by                
  processing the on-board observations. Image processing on the ground        
  derived a coarse estimation of comet size, shape and rotation.              
  The first landmarks were identified.                                        
                                                                              
  The FAT ends at the Approach Transition Point (ATP), which is               
  located in the Sun direction at about 1000 comet nucleus radii from         
  the nucleus.                                                                
                                                                              
  Find below a list of burns with delta-v reduction and duration              
     Date     Delta-V m/s    Dur.(mins)                                       
     7 May       20           41                                              
     21 May     290          441                                              
     4 Jun      270          406                                              
     18 Jun      91          140                                              
     2 Jul       59           94                                              
     9 Jul       26           46                                              
     16 Jul      11           26                                              
     23 Jul       5           17                                              
     3 Aug        3           13                                              
     6 Aug        1            7                                              
                                                                              
-- Close Approach Trajectory (CAT)                                            
  Close approach trajectory operations started at ATP. The spacecraft         
  distance to the comet was decreased to 20 nucleus radii and the             
  relative velocity fell below 1 m/s. The final point of this phase           
  was the Orbit Insertion Point (OIP), the point where the spacecraft         
  started orbiting the comet.                                                 
  During the CAT, 5 landing sites were selected by the Landing team.          
  Details of the final manoeuvres to prepare insertion:                       
    6 August: Rosetta was commanded to conduct a 1-m/s thruster burn          
    (which ran 7 min) to change its direction and enter onto the first        
    arc (of three arcs) of two triangular (really, tetrahedral) orbits        
    about the comet.                                                          
    It is important to note Rosetta has not been captured by 67P/C-G          
    gravity, and the continuing series of thruster burns were                 
    necessary to keep the spacecraft at the comet.                            
                                                                              
    Rosetta executed two of these triangular orbits, one large, at            
    about 100km closest pass-by distance (Big CAT) and the second at          
    about 50km ( Little CAT ).                                                
                                                                              
    10 August: CAT Change 1 burn - a 6min:25sec, 0.88-m/s burn that           
    pushed Rosetta onto the next arc (100km pass-by height).                  
                                                                              
    13 August: CAT Change 2 burn - a 6min:22sec, 0.87-m/s burn that           
    pushed Rosetta onto the next arc (100km pass-by height).                  
                                                                              
    17 August: CAT Change 3 burn - a 6min:19sec, 0.85-m/s burn that           
    pushed Rosetta onto a transfer arc, down to about 80 km height            
    achieved on 20 Aug (CAT 4).                                               
                                                                              
    Finally, with the next two burns on 24 and 27 August, the distance        
    was lowered to 50km.                                                      
                                                                              
 - Transition to Global Mapping (TGM)                                         
  On 31 August, Rosetta began the third and last arc of Little CAT            
  and Rosetta entered the TGM, a set of two manoeuvres.                       
  The phase ended at 10 nucleus radii with ta relative velocity of            
  0.3 m/s.                                                                    
                                                                              
Global Mapping and Close Observations (10 sep 2014 - 28 Oct 2014)             
The Global Mapping phase ran 10 September to 15 October. During this          
phase, Rosetta went down to 29 km distance, a point when the                  
spacecraft became actively captured by the comet gravity, and its             
orbit became circular.                                                        
                                                                              
At the beginning of this phase, the Lander team down selected 2               
landing sites: the nominal and the back up.                                   
                                                                              
A series of manoeuvres reduced Rosetta distance from 18.6 km orbit            
(taking 7 days) to an intermediate orbit approximately 18.6 x 9.8 km          
(with a period of 5 days). From there the orbit was circularised at           
about 9.8 km radius, with a period of approximately 66 hours on 15            
October, and the mission entered the Close Observation Phase (COP).           
This phase provided even higher resolution images of the landing              
site in order to best prepare for Philae's challenging touch-down.            
The new orbit also allowed a number of Rosetta's science instruments          
to collect dust and measure the composition of gases closer to the            
nucleus.                                                                      
                                                                              
On the 28 October, Rosetta conducted a thruster burn (82 sec from             
12:59 UTC) that delivered a delta-v of 0.081 meters/sec. This pushed          
the spacecraft to leave the 10-km-altitude circular orbit (following          
the terminator line) and the COP. Rosetta started its transition to           
the pre-lander-delivery orbit.                                                
On 31 October, the mission control team performed another manoeuvre           
to enter onto the pre-delivery orbit proper.                                  
                                                                              
Lander delivery                                                               
---------------                                                               
On 31 October, Rosetta entered a pre-delivery elliptical orbit at             
approximately 30 km distance from the comet centre. This orbit was            
maintained until delivery on 12 November.                                     
The orbiter performed its pre-separation manoeuvre at 6:04 on 12              
November, which placed it on the trajectory required for separation.          
The separation occurred at 08:35 UTC (the confirmation signal arrived         
on Earth at 09:03 UTC). At 10:34 UTC the Lander activated its                 
transmitters and started forwarding its telemetry to the orbiter. At          
11:08 UTC, this telemetry was received on ground.                             
Touchdown was confirmed for Philae at 16:03 UTC.                              
While Lander telemetry kept flowing towards the Orbiter, the RF link          
between the two crafts was regularly interrupted, which was not               
consistent with a stable landing. Other Lander telemetry gave                 
indication that the Lander had bounced after initial touch-down.              
The link between Orbiter and Lander was broken at 17:59 UTC one hour          
earlier than expected for the targeted landing site.                          
On 13 November Lander telemetry was received on ground at 6:01 UTC,           
very close to the expected time.                                              
                                                                              
During the descent, ROLIS acquired an image at 14:38:41 UT, from a            
distance of approximately 3 km from the surface. The landing site was         
imaged with a resolution of about 3m per pixel.                               
                                                                              
After separation, Orbiter operations focus on maximising visibility           
with the Lander and acquiring data to reconstruct the Lander descent          
trajectory and support Orbiter Navigation.                                    
NAVCAM and OSIRIS, once in Lander pointing, acquired every hour until         
touch-down + 2 hours. After that, NAVCAM observed every 2 hours for           
navigation.                                                                   
The following Orbiter instruments have been operated: ALICE, CONSERT,         
MIRO, OSIRIS, ROSINA, RPC.                                                    
                                                                              
The post-delivery manoeuvre that has been executed on 12 November 2014        
started at 09:14:58.1 UTC and a nominal end time at 09:19:53.7 UTC.           
Rosetta was then on a 50 km orbit.                                            
On 13 November at 19:23 UTC Philae started transferring data to               
Rosetta. Link was lost at 23:08 UTC on 13 November, 40 minutes before         
predicted time.                                                               
During this slot was commanded:                                               
- ranging measurements by CONSERT (Lander Search)                             
- CIVA images                                                                 
- MUPUS boom deployment and hammering                                         
- APXS deployment and measurement                                             
On 14 November at 9:01, Philae data were received on-board Rosetta and        
immediately transmitted to ground, 48 minutes after expected time. The        
visibility period finished at 11:47 UTC on 14 November, 50 minutes            
earlier than predicted.                                                       
During this period was commanded:                                             
- APXS released but measured copper thus revealing that the door had          
  not opened.                                                                 
- MUPUS deployment was successful, hammering took place, SESAME               
  detected it                                                                 
- Drill activation for sample return to COSAC                                 
- PTOLEMY/COSAC spectra acquisitions                                          
- CIVA image but dark.................................................        
- Consert ranging                                                             
The fourth and last Philae visibility period started on 14 November at        
22:15 UTC ground time. The LAnder bus voltage appeared to decrease            
rapidly. On November 15 at 00:07, the link between Orbiter and Lander         
broke.                                                                        
Among the Lander operations carried out during the fourth visibility          
period was a rotation of the Lander to increase the illumination of           
its solar arrays.                                                             
                                                                              
After the planned Touch Down, the Lander did not anchor and bounced.          
We estimated that the first TD was:                                           
    Time UTC: 15:34:06                                                        
    Comet-fixed coordinates: [2.129171, -0.961358, 0.498268] km               
The NAVCAM image, the NAC image and the first TD as the starting point        
gave the following impact point at:                                           
    Time UTC: 16:26:23                                                        
    Comet-fixed coordinates: [2.450, -0.511, -0.242] km                       
This point has an uncertainty of 7 minutes. The position is also              
uncertain.                                                                    
By using three WAC images, the second TD can be deduced:                      
    Time UTC: 17:31:10                                                        
    Comet-fixed coordinates: [2.275, 0.249, -0.444] km                        
Consert Ranging estimated a final landing site at                             
Comet-fixed coordinates: [2.446, -0.055, -0.360] km                           
                                                                              
After Touch Down, began the First Science Sequence (FSS) where all            
Lander instruments operated on the primary battery. The operations            
did not go as planned due to the several TDs but occurred as listed           
above. The Long Term Science Phase should have started after the              
primary battery died, but the final TD let the Lander in a location           
where the illumination condition could not allow battery charging.            
Contact was lost on 15 November 2014 at 00:07, ending the FSS, and the        
Lander went asleep.                                                           
                                                                              
Escort phase                                                                  
------------                                                                  
Planning period during the comet phase were approximately monthly and         
allowed changes in trajectory types every two weeks. The table below          
summarises the trajectory followed by Rosetta after the Landing:              
21 Nov - 3  Dec 2014  |  Bound Orbits at 30 km                                
3  Dec - 6  Dec 2014  |  Transition                                           
6  Dec - 19 Dec 2014  |  Bound Orbit at 20 km                                 
19 Dec - 24 Dec 2014  |  Transition                                           
24 Dec -  4 Feb 2015  |  Bound Orbit at 28 km                                 
4  Feb - 21 Feb 2015  | Close FlyBy CA on 14 Feb at 8km                       
                      | Leg up to 143km                                       
21 Feb - 10 Mar 2015  | Arcs around 80 km                                     
Apr 2015              | Fly bys: CA of 90 km and maximum distance             
                      | of 180km                                              
May 2015              | Fly bys: first from 125km to 180 km then from         
                      | 200km to 325km                                        
June 2015             | Fly bys: from 200 to 240km then CA to 160km           
                      | Sub s/c point located North for Lander com.           
July 2015             | Fly bys: CA at 150 km                                 
Aug 2015              | Fly bys: CA increased to 180 km (star tracker         
                      | issues.                                               
Sept 2015             | Fly bys: between 400 and 460km first then             
                      | reduced to 300-330 km                                 
Oct 2015              | Far excursion at 1500 km                              
Nov 2015              | Fly bys from 420 to 140km                             
Dec 2015              | Fly bys (75-150km)                                    
Jan 2016              | Fly bys (45-95km)                                     
Feb 2016              | Fly bys (32-52km)                                     
Mar 2016              | Terminator orbit (17 to 12km) - night side            
                      | excursion - far excursion at 1000km -                 
                      | hyperbolic arcs at 200km                              
Apr 2016              | Far Flyby arcs at 200km in terminator - Flyby         
                      | arcs at 80 km at 80 deg - Close Flyby at 30km         
                      | Outbound arc (140 to 70km) at terminator -            
                      | insertion into bound orbits at 19km dist.             
May 2016              | Bound orbits in terminator plane: first               
                      | elliptical 19kmx10km - circular 10km -                
                      | circular 7km - mapping orbit at 17km.                 
Jun 2016              | Mapping orbit at 17km - at 30 km - 2 day-side         
                      | half orbit at 45 deg phase angle - elliptical         
                      | 28x14km at terminator                                 
Jul 2016              | 2.5 elliptical orbit 26x9km at terminator -           
                      | circular orbit at 10 km at terminator                 
26 Jul - 9 Aug 2016   | 4 elliptical orbits 14x8km with 70-110 deg            
                      | phase angles                                          
9 Aug - 2 Sep 2016    | elliptical orbits (70-110 deg phase angles).          
                      | Pericentre gradually reduced and apocentre            
                      | increased while constant orbital period of 3          
                      | days 13.7km, 7.5km, 13.7km, 6.7km, 14.4km,            
                      | 6.0km, 15.1km, 5.5km, 15.5km, 5.0km, 15.9km,          
                      | 4.6km, 16.2km, 4.4km, 16.4km                          
2 Sep - 26 Sep 2016   | elliptical orbits (70-110 deg phase angles).          
                      | Pericentre gradually reduced and apocentre            
                      | increased while constant orbital period of 3          
                      | days 4.0km, 17.1km, 3.9km, 17.1km, 4.1km,             
                      | 16.1km, 4.1km, 16.8km, 4.1km, 16.0km, 4.1km,          
                      | 17.0km, 4.1km, 16.7km, 4.1km, 17.2km                  
26 Sep - 30 Sep 2016  | exit from elliptical orbits - hyperbolic arcs         
                      | with dist from 17 to 23km - final descent to          
                      | the comet nucleus.                                    
                                                                              
Orbiter Experiments                                                           
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
ALICE                                                                         
-----                                                                         
ALICE, an Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, characterise the                  
composition of the nucleus and coma, and the nucleus/coma coupling of         
comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This is accomplished through the            
observation of spectral features in the extreme and far ultraviolet           
(EUV/FUV) spectral regions from 70 to 205 nm.                                 
                                                                              
ALICE make measurements of noble gas abundances in the coma, the              
atomic budget in the coma, and major ion abundances in the tail and           
in the region where solar wind particles interact with the ionosphere         
of the comet. ALICE determine the production rates, variability,              
and structure of H2O and CO, and CO2 gas surrounding the nucleus and          
the far-UV properties of solid grains in the coma.                            
                                                                              
ALICE studied Mars and the Rosetta asteroid flyby targets while en            
route to Churyumov- Gerasimenko. ALICE also map the cometary nucleus          
in the FUV                                                                    
                                                                              
Instrument References: [STERNETAL2007]                                        
                                                                              
CONSERT                                                                       
-------                                                                       
CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave                      
Transmission) is an experiment that perform tomography of the                 
comet nucleus revealing its internal structure. CONSERT operates as a         
time domain transponder between the Lander on the comet surface and           
the Orbiter. A radio signal passes from the orbiting component of the         
instrument to the component on the comet surface and is then                  
immediately transmitted back to its source, the idea being to                 
establish a radio link that passes through the comet nucleus. The             
varying propagation delay as the radio waves pass through different           
parts of the cometary nucleus is used to determine the dielectric             
properties of the nuclear material. Many properties of the comet              
nucleus is examined as its overall structural homogeneity, the average        
 size of the sub-structures (Cometesimals) and the number and                 
 thickness of the various layers beneath the surface.                         
                                                                              
Instrument References: [KOFMANETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
COSIMA                                                                        
------                                                                        
The Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser is a secondary ion mass              
spectrometer equipped with a dust collector, a primary ion gun, and           
an optical microscope for target characterization. Dust from the near         
comet environment is collected on a target. The target is then moved          
under a microscope where the positions of any dust particles are              
determined. The cometary dust particles are then bombarded with pulses        
of indium ions from the primary ion gun. The resulting secondary ions         
are extracted into the time-of-flight mass spectrometer.                      
                                                                              
Instrument References: [KISSELETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
GIADA                                                                         
-----                                                                         
The Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator measures the                   
scalar velocity, size and momentum of dust particles in the coma of           
the comet using an optical grain detection system and a mechanical            
grain impact sensor. Five microbalances measure the amount of                 
dust collected as the spacecraft orbits the comet.                            
                                                                              
Instrument References: [COLANGELIETAL2007]                                    
                                                                              
MIDAS                                                                         
-----                                                                         
The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System is intended for the                    
microtextural and statistical analysis of cometary dust particles.            
The instrument is based on the technique of atomic force microscopy.          
This technique, under the conditions prevailing at the Rosetta                
Orbiter permits textural and other analysis of dust particles to be           
performed down to a spatial resolution of 4nm.                                
                                                                              
Instrument References: [RIEDLERETAL2007]                                      
                                                                              
MIRO                                                                          
----                                                                          
MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter) is composed of a          
millimetre wave mixer receiver and a submillimetre heterodyne                 
receiver. The submillimetre wave receiver provides both broad band            
continuum and high resolution spectroscopic data, whereas the                 
millimetre wave receiver provides continuum data only.                        
                                                                              
MIRO measures the near surface temperature of the comet, allowing             
estimation of the thermal and electrical properties of the surface.           
In addition, the spectrometer portion of MIRO allows measurements             
of water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and methanol in the comet coma.           
                                                                              
Instrument References: [GULKISETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
OSIRIS                                                                        
------                                                                        
OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System)           
is a dual camera imaging system operating in the visible, near                
infrared and near ultraviolet wavelength ranges. OSIRIS consists of           
two independent camera systems sharing common electronics. The narrow         
angle camera is designed to produce high spatial resolution images of         
the nucleus of the target comet. The wide angle camera has a wide             
field of view and high straylight rejection to image the dust and gas         
directly above the surface of the nucleus of the target comet. Each           
camera is equipped with filter wheels to allow selection of imaging           
wavelengths for various purposes. The spectroscopic and wider band            
infrared imaging capabilities originally proposed and incorporated in         
the instrument name were descoped during development.                         
                                                                              
Instrument References: [KELLERETAL2006]                                       
                                                                              
ROSINA                                                                        
------                                                                        
ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis)            
consists of two mass spectrometers, since no one technique is able to         
achieve the resolution and accuracy required to fulfil the ROSETTA            
mission goals over the range of molecular masses under analysis. In           
addition, two pressure gauges provide density and velocity data for           
the cometary gas.                                                             
                                                                              
The two mass analysers are:                                                   
* A double focusing magnetic mass spectrometer with a mass range of 1         
- 100 amu and a mass resolution of 3000 at 1 % peak height, optimised         
for very high mass resolution and large dynamic range                         
* A reflectron type time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a mass              
range of 1 -300 amu and a mass resolution better than 500 at 1 % peak         
height, optimised for high sensitivity over a very broad mass range           
                                                                              
Instrument References: [BALSIGERETAL2007]                                     
                                                                              
RPC                                                                           
---                                                                           
RPC (Rosetta Plasma Consortium) is a set of five sensors sharing a            
common electrical and data interface with the Rosetta orbiter. The            
RPC sensors are designed to make complementary measurements of the            
plasma environment around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.                
                                                                              
The RPC sensors are:                                                          
* ICA: an Ion Composition Analyser, which measures the three-                 
  dimensional velocity distribution and mass distribution of positive         
  ions;                                                                       
* IES: an Ion and Electron Sensor, which simultaneously measures              
  the flux of electrons and ions in the plasma surrounding the comet;         
* LAP: a Langmuir Probe, which measures the density, temperature              
  and flow velocity of the cometary plasma;                                   
* MAG: a Fluxgate Magnetometer, which measures the magnetic field             
  in the region where the solar wind plasma interacts with the comet;         
  Instrument References: [GLASSMEIERETAL2007B]                                
* MIP: a Mutual Impedance Probe, which derives the electron plasma            
  density, and can sometimes constrain other plasma parameters of the inner   
  coma of the comet.                                                          
                                                                              
Instrument References: [CARRETAL2007]                                         
                                                                              
RSI                                                                           
---                                                                           
RSI (Radio Science Investigation) makes use of the communication              
system that the Rosetta spacecraft uses to communicate with the               
ground stations on Earth. Either one-way or two-way radio links can           
be used for the investigations. In the one-way case, a signal                 
generated by an ultra-stable oscillator on the spacecraft is received         
on earth for analysis. In the two way case, a signal transmitted from         
the ground station is transmitted back to Earth by the spacecraft. In         
either case, the downlink may be performed in either X-band or both X         
-band and S-band.                                                             
                                                                              
RSI investigates the nondispersive frequency shifts (classical                
Doppler) and dispersive frequency shifts (due to the ionised                  
propagation medium), the signal power and the polarization of the             
radio carrier waves. Variations in these parameters yields                    
information on the motion of the spacecraft, the perturbing forces            
acting on the spacecraft and the propagation medium.                          
                                                                              
Instrument References: [PAETZOLDETAL2007]                                     
                                                                              
VIRTIS                                                                        
------                                                                        
VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) is an              
imaging spectrometer that combines three data channels in one                 
instrument. Two of the data channels are committed to spectral                
mapping and are housed in the Mapper optical subsystem. The third             
channel is devoted solely to spectroscopy and is housed in the High           
resolution optical subsystem.                                                 
                                                                              
The mapping channel optical system is a Shafer telescope consisting           
of five aluminium mirrors mounted on an aluminium optical bench. The          
mapping channel uses a silicon charge coupled device (CCD) to detect          
wavelengths from 0.25 micron to 1 micron and a mercury cadmium                
telluride (HgCdTe) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) to detect from          
0.95 micron to 5 microns.                                                     
                                                                              
The high resolution channel is an echelle spectrometer. The incident          
light is collected by an off-axis parabolic mirror and then                   
collimated by another off-axis parabola before entering a cross-              
dispersion prism. After exiting the prism, the light is diffracted by         
a flat reflection grating, which disperses the light in a direction           
perpendicular to the prism dispersion. The high-resolution channel            
employs a HgCdTe IRFPA to perform detection from 2 to 5 microns.              
                                                                              
Instrument References: [CORADINIETAL2007]                                     
                                                                              
SREM                                                                          
----                                                                          
The Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is a monitor-class          
instrument intended for space radiation environment characterisation          
and radiation housekeeping purposes. SREM provides continuous                 
directional, temporal, and spectral data of high-energy electron,             
proton, and cosmic ray fluxes encountered along the orbit of the              
spacecraft, as well as measurements of the total accumulated                  
radiation dose absorbed by SREM itself.                                       
                                                                              
This instrument is a facility monitor flown on several ESA                    
spacecrafts. It is not considered as a PI (Principal Investigator)            
instrument.                                                                   
                                                                              
Instrument References: [MOHAMMADZADEETAL2003]                                 
                                                                              
                                                                              
LANDER (PHILAE)                                                               
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
The 100 kg Rosetta Lander, named Philae, is the first spacecraft              
ever to make a soft landing on the surface of a comet nucleus. The            
Lander is provided by a European consortium under the leadership of           
the German Aerospace Research Institute (DLR) and the French Space            
Research Center (CNES). Other members of the consortium are ESA and           
institutes from Austria, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and         
the UK. A description of the Lander can be found in [RO-EST-RS-3020].         
                                                                              
The box-shaped Lander was carried in piggyback fashion on the side of         
the Orbiter until it arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Once         
the Orbiter was aligned correctly, the ground station commanded the           
Lander to self-eject from the main spacecraft and unfold its three            
legs, ready for a gentle touch down at the end of the ballistic               
descent. The Landing is described above.                                      
                                                                              
Immediately after touchdown, a harpoon was supposed to fire to anchor         
the Lander to the ground and prevent it escaping from the comet's             
extremely weak gravity. The system did not work and the Lander bounced        
several times.                                                                
                                                                              
Science Objectives                                                            
------------------                                                            
It is the general aim of the scientific experiments carried and               
operated by the Rosetta Lander to obtain a first in situ composition          
analysis of primitive material from the early solar system, to study          
the composition and structure of a cometary nucleus, reflecting               
growth processes in the early solar system, to provide ground truth           
data for the Rosetta Orbiter experiments and to investigate dynamic           
processes leading to changes in cometary activity.                            
                                                                              
The primary objective of the Rosetta Lander mission is the in situ            
investigation of the elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogic           
composition and the morphology of early solar system material as it           
is preserved in the cometary nucleus. Measurement of the absorption           
and phase shift of electromagnetic waves penetrating the comet                
nucleus will help to determine its internal structure. Seismometry            
and magnetometry will also be used to investigate the interior of the         
comet.                                                                        
                                                                              
The scientific objectives of the Rosetta Lander can be listed                 
according to their priority as follows:                                       
1. Determination of the composition of cometary surface and                   
   subsurface matter: bulk elemental abundances, isotopic ratios,             
   minerals, ices, carbonaceous compounds, organics, volatiles - also         
   in dependence on time and insolation.                                      
2. Investigation of the structure and physical properties of the              
   cometary surface: topography, texture, roughness, regolith scales,         
   mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties,                   
   temperatures. Characterization of the near surface plasma                  
   environment.                                                               
3. Investigation of the global internal structure.                            
4. Investigation of the comet/plasma interaction.                             
                                                                              
The in situ measurements performed by the Rosetta Lander instruments          
will also provide local ground truth to calibrate Orbiter                     
instruments.                                                                  
                                                                              
Lander Experiments                                                            
------------------                                                            
                                                                              
Here a description of all the instruments of the Lander:                      
                                                                              
APXS: Alpha-p-X-ray spectrometer                                              
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                               
The goal of the Rosetta APXS experiment is the determination of the           
chemical composition of the landing site and its potential alteration         
during the comet's approach to the Sun. The data obtained is                  
used to characterize the surface of the comet, to determine the               
chemical composition of the dust component, and to compare the dust           
with known meteorite types.                                                   
                                                                              
Instrument References: [KLINGELHOFERETAL2007]                                 
                                                                              
CIVA: Panoramic and microscopic imaging system                                
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                               
The Cometary Infrared and Visible Analiser (CIVA) is an integrated            
set of imaging instruments, designed to characterize the landing and          
sampling site, the 360 deg panorama as seen from the Rosetta Lander,          
all samples collected and delivered by the Drill Sample and                   
Distribution System, and the stratigraphy within the boreholes. It is         
constituted by a panoramic stereo camera (CIVA-P), and a microscope           
coupled to an IR spectrometer (CIVA-M). CIVA is sharing a common              
Imaging Main Electronics (CIVA/ROLIS/IME) with ROLIS. CIVA-P will             
characterize the landing site, from the landing legs to the local             
horizon. The camera is composed of 6 identical micro-cameras, mounted         
of the Lander sides, with their optical axes separated by 60 deg. In          
addition, stereoscopic capability is provided by one additional micro-        
camera, identical to and co-aligned with one of the panoramic micro-          
camera, with its optical axis 10 cm apart.                                    
                                                                              
CIVA-M combines in separated boxes, two ultra-compact and                     
miniaturized channels, one visible microscope CIVA-M/V and one IR             
spectrometer CIVA-M/I, to characterize, by non-destructive analyses,          
the texture, albedo, mineralogical and molecular composition of each          
of the samples collected and distributed by the Drill Sample and              
Distribution System.                                                          
                                                                              
Instrument References: [BIBRINGETAL2007A]                                     
                                                                              
CONSERT: Radio sounding, nucleus tomography                                   
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                   
The Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission              
(CONSERT) is a complex experiment that performs tomography of the             
comet nucleus revealing its internal structure. CONSERT operates as a         
time domain transponder between the Lander, on the comet surface and          
the Orbiter orbiting the comet. A radio signal passes from the                
orbiting component of the instrument to the component on the comet            
surface and is then immediately transmitted back to its source, the           
idea being to establish a radio link that passes through the comet            
nucleus. The varying propagation delay as the radio waves pass through        
different parts of the cometary nucleus is used to determine the              
dielectric properties of the nuclear material. Many properties of the         
comet nucleus is examined as its overall structural homogeneity, the          
average size of the sub-structures (Cometesimals) and the number and          
thickness of the various layers beneath the surface.                          
                                                                              
Instrument References: [KOFMANETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
COSAC: Evolved gas analyser - elemental and molecular composition             
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -             
The COmetary SAmpling and Composition experiment COSAC is one of the          
two 'evolved gas analysers' (EGAs) on board the Rosetta-Lander.               
Whereas the other EGA, Ptolemy, aims mainly at accurately measuring           
isotopic ratios of light elements, the COSAC is specialised on                
detection and identification of complex organic molecules. The                
instrument can be described as an effort to analyse in situ, mainly           
with respect to the composition of the volatile fraction, cometary            
matter nearly as well and accurately as could be done in a laboratory         
on Earth. Due to the Rosetta Lander rotatability, the instrument can          
conduct analyses and investigations at different spots of the landing         
site and, aided by the drill, take samples for analysis from a depth          
up to at least 0.2 m.                                                         
Instrument References: [GOESMANNETAL2007]                                     
                                                                              
PTOLEMY: Evolved gas analyser - isotopic composition                          
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                         
The size of a small shoe box and weighing less than 5 kg, Ptolemy             
uses gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GCMS) techniques to              
investigate the comet surface & subsurface. The instrument concept is         
termed 'MODULUS' which is taken to mean Methods Of Determining and            
Understanding Light elements from Unequivocal Stable isotope                  
compositions. The scientific goal of the PTOLEMY is to understand the         
geochemistry of light elements, such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen            
and oxygen, by determining their nature, distribution and stable              
isotopic compositions.                                                        
Instrument References: [WRIGHTETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
MUPUS: Measurements of surface and subsurface properties                      
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                     
The Multi-Purpose Sensor Experiment actually consists of four parts:          
1. A penetrator, approximately 40 cm long, is hammered into the               
ground about 1m apart from the Lander for measuring during the                
penetration process the mechanical strength of the material by means          
of a depth sensor and a densitometer. The penetrator is equipped with         
a series of temperature sensors and heaters for determining the               
temperature as a function of depth and insolation.                            
2. An accelerometer and a temperature sensor accommodated in the              
harpoon(s)                                                                    
3. A four-channel infrared radiometer measures surface temperatures           
in the vicinity of the Lander. Density of the nearsurface (down to            
20cm) material is determined by measuring the absorption of                   
gamma-rays emitted from a radioactive isotope mounted at the tip of           
the penetrator.                                                               
Instrument References: [SPOHNETAL2007]                                        
                                                                              
ROLIS: Descent & Down-Looking Imaging                                         
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                         
The ROLIS Camera (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) delivered first              
close-ups of the environment of the landing place of comet                    
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the descent.                                 
After landing ROLIS made high-resolved investigations to study                
the structure (morphology) and mineralogy of the surface.                     
Instrument References: [MOTTOLAETAL2007]                                      
                                                                              
ROMAP: Magnetometer and plasma monitor                                        
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                       
The Rosetta Lander Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor ROMAP is a multi-          
sensor experiment. The magnetic field is measured with a fluxgate             
magnetometer. An electrostatic analyzer with integrated Faraday cup           
measures ions and electrons. The local pressure is measured with              
Pirani and Penning sensors. The sensors are situated on a short boom.         
The deployment on the surface of a cometary nucleus demanded the              
development of a special digital magnetometer of little weight and            
small power requirements. For the first time a magnetic sensor is             
operated from within a plasma sensor. A prototype of the                      
magnetometer, named SPRUTMAG, was flown on space station MIR.                 
Instrument References: [AUSTERETAL2007]                                       
                                                                              
SD2: Sampling, Drilling and Distribution Subsystem                            
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                           
The Rosetta-Lander is equipped with a Sample Drill & Distribution             
(SD2) subsystem which is in charge to collect cometary surface                
samples at given depth and distribute them to the following                   
instruments: CIVA-M (microscope (MS) & Infrared Spectrometer (IS)),           
the ovens, serving COSAC and PTOLEMY.                                         
                                                                              
Comet sample from pre-determined and/or known (measured) depth are            
collected and transported by SD2 to well defined locations:                   
* MS & IS viewing place                                                       
* ovens for high temperature (800 deg C) heating                              
* ovens for medium temperature (130 deg C) heating.                           
* ovens with a window, where samples can be investigated by CIVA-M            
The sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem provides              
microscopes and advanced gas analysers with samples collected at              
different depths below the surface of the comet. Specifically SD2 can         
bore up to 250 mm into the surface of the comet and collect samples           
of material at predetermined and/or known depths. It then transports          
each sample to a carousel which feeds samples to different instrument         
stations: a spectrometer, a volume check plug, ovens for high and             
medium temperatures and a cleaning station. SD2 is accommodated               
on the flat ground-plate of the Rosetta, where it is exposed to               
the cometary environment.                                                     
Instrument References: [ERCOLIFINZIETAL2007]                                  
                                                                              
SESAME: Surface electrical, acoustic and dust impact monitoring               
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -               
The SESAME (Surface Electrical, Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring               
Experiments) electronics board and the integration of the components          
are managed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Space          
Simulation, Cologne.                                                          
                                                                              
The results of SESAME help in understanding how comets, have                  
formed and thus, how the solar system, including the Earth, was born.         
Instrument References: [SEIDENSTICKERETA2007]                                 
                                                                              
                                                                              
GROUND SEGMENT                                                                
=====================================================================         
                                                                              
This section summarizes the roles and responsibilities for the                
Rosetta Ground Segment.                                                       
                                                                              
The primary responsibility for developing the payload operations              
strategy for the Rosetta Scientific Mission is the Rosetta Science            
Working Team. The Rosetta Science Working Team (SWT) monitors and             
advises on all aspects of Rosetta which affect its scientific                 
performance.                                                                  
                                                                              
Rosetta Ground Segment                                                        
-----------------------                                                       
The Rosetta ground segment consists of two major elements: the                
Rosetta Mission Operations Centre (RMOC) and the Rosetta Science              
Ground Segment (RSGS).                                                        
                                                                              
Rosetta Science Ground Segment                                                
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                           
The Rosetta Science Ground Segment (RSGS) is located at the                   
European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Spain. The main task is to          
support the Rosetta Project Scientist in the planning of the science          
operations schedule and in the generation of coordinated operational          
sequences, the payload command sequences for all Rosetta instruments          
and their onward transmission to the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre        
(RMOC). In addition, the RSGS prepares the trajectory during the comet        
escort phase.                                                                 
                                                                              
Rosetta Mission Operations Center                                             
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                           
The Rosetta Mission Operations Center (RMOC) is located at the                
European Space Operations Center (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. The            
RMOC is responsible for the Spacecraft operations and all real time           
contacts with the spacecraft and payload, the overall mission                 
planning, flight dynamics and spacecraft and payload data                     
distribution.                                                                 
                                                                              
Rosetta Lander Ground Segment                                                 
------------------------------                                                
The Rosetta Lander Ground Segment (RLGS) is made up of two                    
operational teams. When CNES joined the DLR consortium for developing         
the Lander, it was decided to divide the RLGS into 2 centers (see             
Lander Project Plan [RL-PL-DLR-97002]).                                       
These teams are responsible for the success of the Lander operations,         
to ensure that the Lander performs the science with regards to its            
status, and to give the data to the PI's and suppliers.                       
                                                                              
Lander Control Center                                                         
- - - - - - - - - - - -                                                       
The Lander Control Center (LCC), located at DLR/MUSC in Koeln                 
(Germany), in charge of Rosetta Lander operations during the flight           
segment definition, design, realization, assembly and tests.                  
                                                                              
Science Operations and Navigation Center                                      
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                     
The Science Operations and Navigation Center is under CNES                    
responsibility, located in Toulouse (France). It is responsible for           
the navigation and mission analysis aspects, including separation,            
landing and descent strategies and generation of the scientific               
sequences.                                                                    
                                                                              
Rosetta Scientific Data Archive                                               
--------------------------------                                              
All scientific data obtained during the full mission duration                 
remains proprietary of the PI teams and the Lander teams for a maximum        
period of 6 months after they have been received from ESOC. After             
this period, the scientific data products from the mission have to be         
submitted to RSOC in a reduced and calibrated form such that they can         
be used by the scientific community. The Archive Scientist prepares           
the release of Rosetta Scientific Data Archive after reception from           
the individual Rosetta instruments and after the 6 months proprietary         
period.                                                                       
                                                                              
                                                                              
Acronyms                                                                      
--------                                                                      
For more acronyms refer to Rosetta Project Glossary [RO-EST-LI-5012]          
                                                                              
ATTC     Absolute Time Telecommand                                            
AU       Astronomical Unit                                                    
CA       Closest Approach                                                     
CAP      Comet Acquisition Point                                              
CAT      Close Approach Trajectory                                            
CNES     Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales                                   
COP      Close Observation Phase                                              
DLR      German Aerospace Center                                              
DSM      Deep Space Manoeuver                                                 
ESA      European Space Agency                                                
ESAC     European Space Astronomy Centre                                      
ESOC     European Space Operations Center                                     
ESTEC    European Space Research and Technology Center                        
EUV      Extreme UltraViolet                                                  
FAT      Far approach trajectory                                              
FSS      First Science Sequence                                               
FUV      Far UltraViolet                                                      
GCMS     Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry                               
GMP      Global Mapping Phase                                                 
HGA      High Gain Antenna                                                    
HgCdTe   Mercury Cadmium Telluride                                            
HIGH     High Activity Phase (Escort Phase)                                   
HK       HouseKeeping                                                         
IRAS     InfraRed Astronomical Satellite                                      
IRFPA    Infrared Focal Plane Array                                           
IS       Infrared Spectrometer                                                
LCC      Lander Control Center                                                
LDL      Long Debye Length                                                    
LEOP     Launch and Early Orbit Phase                                         
LOW      Low Activity Phase (Escort Phase)                                    
LTE      Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium                                      
MINC     Moderate Increase Phase (Escort Phase)                               
MGA      Medium Gain Antenna                                                  
MLI      Multi Layer Insulation                                               
MS       Microscope                                                           
NNO      New Norcia ground station                                            
OCM      Orbit Correction Manoeuvres                                          
OIP      Orbit Insertion Point                                                
PI       Principal Investigator                                               
P/L      PayLoad                                                              
PC       Payload Checkout                                                     
PDHC     Pre Delivery Calib Science                                           
PHC      Post Hibernation Commissioning                                       
PRL      Prelanding                                                           
RBD      Rebounds                                                             
RF       Radio Frequency                                                      
RMOC     Rosetta Mission Operations Center                                    
RLGS    Rosetta Lander Ground Segment                                         
RL       Rosetta Lander                                                       
RO       Rosetta Orbiter                                                      
RSGS     Rosetta Science Ground Segment                                       
RVM      Rendez-vous Manoeuver                                                
S/C      SpaceCraft                                                           
SDL      Separation Descent and Landing                                       
SINC     Sharp Increase Phase (Escort Phase)                                  
SONC     Science Operations and Navigation Center                             
SSP      Surface Science Package                                              
STR      Star TRacker                                                         
SWT      Science Working Team                                                 
TGM      Transition to global mapping
MISSION_OBJECTIVES_SUMMARY
The prime scientific objective of the Rosetta mission            
             is to study the origin of comets, the relationship               
             between cometary and interstellar material and its               
             implications with regard to the origin of the Solar              
             System.
REFERENCE_DESCRIPTION