Mission Information
MISSION_START_DATE 2011-08-05T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_STOP_DATE 3000-01-01T12:00:00.000Z
The majority of the text in this file 
was extracted from the Juno Mission Plan Document, S. Stephens, 29 March
2011.[JPL D-35556]

Mission Overview
  Juno launched on 5 August 2011.  The spacecraft uses a deltaV-EGA trajectory
  consisting of a two part deep space maneuver on 30 August and 14 September
  2012 followed by an Earth gravity assist on 9 October 2013 at an altitude of
  559 km.  Jupiter arrival is on 5 July 2016 commencing operations for a 
  5 (Earth) year-long prime mission comprising 32 high inclination, high
  eccentricity orbits of Jupiter.  The orbit is polar (90 degree inclination)
  with a periapsis altitude of 4200-8000 km and a semi-major axis of 
  56.35 RJ (Jovian radius) giving an orbital period of 52.83 days.  The primary
  science is acquired for approximately 12 hours centered on each periapsis
  although fields and particles data are acquired at low rates for the
  remaining apoapsis portion of each orbit.

  Currently, 5 of the first 7 periapses are dedicated to microwave radiometry
  of Jupiter's deep atmosphere with most of the remaining orbits dedicated to
  gravity measurements to determine the structure of Jupiter's interior.  All
  orbits will include fields and particles measurements of the planet's
  auroral regions.  Juno is spin stabilized with a rotation rate of 2
  rotations per minute (RPM).  For the radiometry orbits the spin axis is
  precisely perpendicular to the orbit plane so that the radiometer fields of
  view pass through the nadir.  For gravity passes, the spin axis is aligned
  to the Earth direction, allowing for Doppler measurements through the
  periapsis portion of the orbit.  The orbit plane is initially very close to
  perpendicular to the Sun-Jupiter line and evolves over the 5-year mission.
  Generally, data acquired during the periapsis passes are recorded and played
  back over the subsequent apoapsis portion of the orbit, although some data
  can be downlinked during the gravity passes.

  Juno's instrument complement includes Gravity Science using the X and Ka
  bands to determine the structure of Jupiter's interior; magnetometer
  investigation (MAG) to study the magnetic dynamo and interior of Jupiter as
  well as to explore the polar magnetosphere; and a microwave radiometer (MWR)
  experiment covering 6 wavelengths between 1.3 and 50 cm to perform deep
  atmospheric sounding and composition measurements.  The instrument
  complement also includes a suite of fields and particle instruments to study
  the polar magnetosphere and Jupiter's aurora.  This suite includes an
  energetic particle detector (JEDI), a Jovian auroral (plasma) distributions
  experiment (JADE), a radio and plasma wave instrument (Waves), an
  ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), and a Jupiter infrared auroral mapping
  instrument (JIRAM).  The JunoCam is a camera included for education and
  public outreach.  While this is not a science instrument, we plan to capture
  the data and archive them in the PDS along with the other mission data.  The
  MAG investigation consists of redundant flux gate magnetometers (FGM) and
  co-located advanced stellar compasses (ASC).  The ASCs are provided by the
  Danish Technical University under an effort led by John Jorgenson.

  Scott Bolton is the Juno Principal Investigator.  The Science Team members
  responsible for the delivery and operation of the instruments are listed

    Instrument                                      Acronym   Lead Co-I
    ----------------------------------------------  --------  ---------
    Gravity Science                                 GRAV      Folkner
    Magnetometer                                    MAG       Connerney
    Microwave Radiometer                            MWR       Janssen
    Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument  JEDI      Mauk
    Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment         JADE      McComas
    Radio and plasma wave instrument                Waves     Kurth
    Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph                UVS       Gladstone
    Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper                  JIRAM     Adriani
    Juno color, visible-light camera                JUNOCAM   Hansen

Mission Phases

    The Launch phase starts at L-40 min (Launch-40 min), and covers the
    interval from launch, through initial ground station acquisition, until
    the establishment of a pre-defined, stable, and slowly changing Sun-
    pointed attitude when cruise attitude control algorithms and ephemerides
    can be used. The end of the Launch phase is determined by post-launch
    health and safety assessments.  The boundary is at L+3 days, after initial
    acquisition and after confirmation that the Flight System is safe and in
    a power-positive, thermally stable, and commandable attitude.

    Target Name              :  N/A
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2011-08-05 (2011-217)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2011-08-08 (2011-220)

    The Inner Cruise 1 phase lasts from post-Launch establishment of a
    pre-defined and stable Sun-pointed attitude when cruise attitude control
    algorithms and ephemerides can be used, until after initial spacecraft and
    instrument checkouts have been performed and the spacecraft has gotten far
    enough from the Sun to allow Earth-pointing instead of Sun-pointing. TCM 1
    (the first planned trajectory correction maneuver) was deemed not
    necessary, hence, was not executed.  The phase spans the interval from L+3
    to L+66 days.

    Target Name              :  SOLAR_SYSTEM
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2011-08-08 (2011-220)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2011-10-10 (2011-283)

    The Inner Cruise 2 phase spans the period from L+66 days until L+663
    days.  The Deep Space Maneuvers (DSMs) occur during this phase, near
    aphelion of Juno's first orbit about the Sun, on the way to Earth Flyby
    and then Jupiter.  There is increased DSN (Deep Space Network) coverage
    associated with the DSMs and a cleanup TCM. DSMs 1 and 2 occur on 
    2012-08-30 and 2010-09-14.

    Target Name              :  SOLAR_SYSTEM
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2011-10-10 (2011-283)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2013-05-29 (2013-149)

    The Inner Cruise 3 phase spans the interval from L+663 days to L+823
    days.  The duration of this cruise phase is 160 days.  Featured in this
    phase is Earth Flyby (EFB), which gives Juno a gravity assist (providing
    7.3 km/s of deltaV) on its way to Jupiter. It occurs as the spacecraft is
    completing one elliptical orbit around the Sun and includes perihelion.
    Three TCMs were planned before EFB (the last of which was deemed not
    necessary) and one after EFB. There is increased DSN coverage associated
    with the 4 maneuvers and EFB.  The Inner Cruise 3 phase is focused on
    performing the required maneuvers, as well as an integrated operations
    exercise around Earth Flyby, subject to Flight System constraints.
    Closest approach to Earth occurs on 2013-10-09 at 19:21 UTC.

    Target Name              :  EARTH, SOLAR_SYSTEM
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2013-05-29 (2013-149)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2013-11-05 (2013-309)

    Earth Closest Approach   :  2013-10-09T19:21 (2013-282)

    The Outer Cruise phase lasts from L+823 days until the start of Jupiter
    Approach at Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI)-6 months (JOI-182 days or
    L+1614 days). The duration of this cruise phase is 791 days, which is
    over 2 years.

    Target Name              :  SOLAR_SYSTEM
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2013-11-05 (2013-309)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2016-01-05 (2016-005)

    The Jupiter Approach phase lasts the final 6 months of cruise before
    Jupiter Orbit Insertion and is an opportunity for final Flight System and
    instrument checkouts as well as science observations to start exercising
    the ground system and Flight System, although orbit insertion preparations
    limit instrument activities close to JOI. There are more frequent
    maneuvers approaching JOI, starting with a TCM at JOI-5 months, and
    correspondingly increasing DSN coverage. The 178-day Jupiter Approach
    phase is preceded by a 26-month Outer Cruise phase.   Jupiter Approach
    starts 3 months after the project is fully staffed up in preparation for
    JOI and the 1.3 years of science orbits.   The phase ends at JOI-4 days,
    which is the start of the JOI critical sequence.

    Target Name:             :  JUPITER, SOLAR_SYSTEM
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2016-01-05 (2016-005)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2016-07-01 (2016-183)

    The JOI phase encompasses the JOI critical sequence. It begins 4 days
    before the start of the orbit insertion maneuver and ends 1 hour after the
    start.  JOI, the second critical event of the mission, occurs at closest
    approach to Jupiter, and slows the spacecraft enough to let it be captured
    by Jupiter into a 53.8-day orbit.  A cleanup burn at JOI+8.6d during the
    Capture Orbits phase is required to clean up JOI maneuver execution
    errors. DSN coverage is continuous during the JOI phase.

    Target Name              :  N/A
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2016-07-01 (2016-183)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2016-07-05 (2016-187)

    Perijove 0               :  2016-07-05T02:47:32 (2016-187)    

    The Science Orbits phase includes Orbit 0 through Orbit 35.  Orbit N is
    defined from apojove (AJ) N-1 through apojove N, and includes perijove
    (PJ) N.  Orbit numbering starts before the Science Orbits phase.  JOI
    occurs at PJ0, so Orbit 0 lasts from PJ0 through AJ0 (including a JOI 
    cleanup maneuver at JOI+8.6d).  Orbit 1 includes PJ1, and runs from AJ0
    through AJ1. Orbit 2 includes PJ2, and runs from AJ1 through AJ2. 
    Orbit 3 includes PJ3, and runs from AJ2 through AJ3. Early orbital science
    is baselined in Orbits 0, 1, 2, and 3, except for the JOI keepout zone.  
    Orbit 4 is the first science orbit. It includes PJ4 (and the first OTM at
    PJ4+7.5h), and runs from AJ3 through AJ4. The last science orbit is Orbit
    34.  It is bookkept as an extra science orbit, since the mission uses
    Orbits 2 through 33 to obtain 32 perijoves with MAG and other data that
    meet Level-1 baseline science requirements. Small (up to 8 m/s) orbit
    trim maneuvers (OTMs) are planned after each set of perijove science
    observations, at PJ+4h, PJ+6h, or PJ+7.5h in Orbits 4 through 34, to
    target the perijove longitude required for science observations in the
    next orbit. There is no need for an OTM after PJ34. A deorbit maneuver
    (deterministic deltaV = 77 m/s) is planned near AJ34.

    Radiation accumulation increases substantially as the orbital line of
    apsides rotates and perijove latitude increases from 3 degrees at JOI to
    36 (TBD) degrees at PJ35. There are currently no plans for an extended

    Target Name              :  JUPITER 
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2016-07-05 (2016-187)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2021-07-03 (2021-184)

    Perijove 1               :  2016-08-27T12:50:44 (2016-240)
    Perijove 2               :  2016-10-19T18:10:54 (2016-293)
    Perijove 3               :  2016-12-11T17:03:41 (2016-346)
    Perijove 4               :  2017-02-02T12:57:09 (2017-033)
    Perijove 5               :  2017-03-27T08:51:52 (2017-086)
    Perijove 6               :  2017-05-19T06:00:45 (2017-139)
    Perijove 7               :  2017-07-11T01:54:51 (2017-192)
    Perijove 8               :  2017-09-01T21:48:57 (2017-244)
    Perijove 9               :  2017-10-24T17:43:00 (2017-297)
    Perijove 10              :	2017-12-16T17:57:39 (2017-350)
    Perijove 11              :  2018-02-07T13:51:49 (2018-038)
    Perijove 12              :  2018-04-01T09:45:57 (2018-091)
    Perijove 13              :  2018-05-24T05:40:07 (2018-144)
    Perijove 14              :  2018-07-16T05:17:38 (2018-197)
    Perijove 15              :  2018-09-07T01:11:55 (2018-250)
    Perijove 16              :  2018-10-29T21:06:15 (2018-302)
    Perijove 17              :  2018-12-21T17:00:25 (2018-355)
    Perijove 18              :  2019-02-12T16:19:48 (2019-043)
    Perijove 19              :  2019-04-06T12:13:58 (2019-096)
    Perijove 20              :  2019-05-29T08:08:13 (2019-149)
    Perijove 21              :  2019-07-21T04:02:44 (2019-202)
    Perijove 22              :  2019-09-12T03:40:47 (2019-254)
    Perijove 23              :  2019-11-03T23:32:56 (2019-307)
    Perijove 24              :  2019-12-26T16:58:59 (2019-360)
    Perijove 25              :  2020-02-17T17:51:36 (2020-048)
    Perijove 26              :  2020-04-10T14:24:34 (2020-101)
    Perijove 27              :  2020-06-02T10:19:55 (2020-154)
    Perijove 28              :  2020-07-25T06:15:21 (2020-207)
    Perijove 29              :  2020-09-16T02:10:49 (2020-260)
    Perijove 30              :  2020-11-08T01:49:39 (2020-313)
    Perijove 31              :  2020-12-30T21:45:12 (2020-365)
    Perijove 32              :  2021-02-21T17:40:31 (2021-052)
    Perijove 33              :  2021-04-15T13:36:26 (2021-105)
		Perijove 34              :  2021-06-07T09:32:03 (2021-158)

    The Deorbit phase occurs during the final perijove-to-perijove orbit of
    the mission.  The 7-day phase starts several days after the Orbit 34
    perijove science pass (part of the extra orbit) at AJ34-1h, before the
    start of the apojove deorbit maneuver (by which time we hope to have all
    or most of the PJ34 data on the ground).  It continues through AJ34, and
    ends with Impact into Jupiter at PJ35. In order to meet planetary 
    protection requirements and ensure that we do not impact Europa (as well
    as Ganymede and Callisto), the spacecraft performs a deorbit maneuver near
    apojove that reduces our orbital velocity and sends us to a perijove below
    Jupiter's cloud tops. The mean burn deltaV of 77 m/s is the largest
    maneuver of the mission after the 3 main engine maneuvers, and is planned
    to be performed on RCS (Reaction Control System) thrusters (deltaV to
    Earth angle, ELA ~ 70 degrees). The timing of the burn is not mission
    critical; a contingency delayed execution can occur several days around
    and following apojove if necessary.  Impact into Jupiter marks End of
    Mission (EOM).

    Target Name              :  JUPITER
    Mission Phase Start Time :  2021-07-03 (2021-184)
    Mission Phase Stop Time  :  2021-07-31 (2021-212)

    Perijove 35              :  2021-07-30T04:33:28 (2021-211)
  Juno's science objectives encompass four scientific themes: origin, 
  interior structure, atmospheric composition and dynamics, and polar
  magnetosphere.  These are based on Appendix E to the New Frontiers Program
  Plan: Program Level Requirements for the Juno Project (PLRA).  Juno
  addresses science objectives central to three NASA Science divisions: Solar
  System (Planetary), Earth-Sun System (Heliophysics), and Universe
  (Astrophysics).  Juno's primary science goal of understanding the
  formation, evolution, and structure of Jupiter is directly related to the
  conditions in the early solar system which led to the formation of our
  planetary system. The mass of Jupiter's solid core and the abundance of
  heavy elements in the atmosphere discriminate among models for giant planet
  formation.  Juno constrains the core mass by mapping the gravitational
  field, and measures through microwave sounding the global abundances of
  oxygen (water) and nitrogen (ammonia). Juno reveals the history of Jupiter
  by mapping the gravitational and magnetic fields with sufficient resolution
  to constrain Jupiter's interior structure, the source region of the
  magnetic field, and the nature of deep convection. By sounding deep into
  Jupiter's atmosphere, Juno determines to what depth the belts and zones
  penetrate.  Juno provides the first survey and exploration of the
  three-dimensional structure of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere.  The overall
  goal of the Juno mission is to improve our understanding of the solar
  system by understanding the origin and evolution of Jupiter.

    Juno investigates the formation and origin of Jupiter's atmosphere and the
    potential migration of planets through the measurement of Jupiter's global
    abundance of oxygen (water) and nitrogen (ammonia).

    a) Measure the global O/H ratio (water abundance) in Jupiter's atmosphere.

    b) Measure the global N/H ratio (ammonia) in Jupiter's atmosphere.

    Juno investigates variations in Jupiter's deep atmosphere related to
    meteorology, composition, temperature profiles, cloud opacity, and
    atmospheric dynamics.

    a) Determine microwave opacity as a function of latitude and altitude

    b) Determine depths of cloud and atmospheric features such as zones,
       belts, and spots, and map dynamical variations in ammonia and water.

    c) Characterize microwave opacity of the polar atmosphere region.

    Juno investigates the fine structure of Jupiter's magnetic field,
    providing information on its internal structure and the nature of the

    a) Map the magnetic field of Jupiter, globally, by direct measurement of
       the field at close-in radial distances.

    b) Determine the magnetic spectrum of the field, providing information on
       the dynamo core radius.

    c) Investigate secular variations (long-term time variability) of the
       magnetic field.

    Juno gravity sounding explores the distribution of mass inside the planet.

    a) Determine the gravity field to provide constraints on the mass of the

    b) Determine the gravity field to detect the centrifugal response of the
       planet to its own differential rotation (winds) at depths of kilobars
       and greater.

    c) Investigate the response to tides raised by the Jovian satellites.

    Juno explores Jupiter's three-dimensional polar magnetosphere and aurorae.

    a) Investigate the primary auroral processes responsible for particle

    b) Characterize the field-aligned currents that transfer angular momentum
       from Jupiter to its magnetosphere.

    c) Identify and characterize auroral radio and plasma wave emissions
       associated with particle acceleration.

    d) Characterize the nature, location, and spatial scale of auroral