Data Set Overview
This dataset provides taxonomic classifications of asteroids in each of
eight different systems: Tholen (1984, 1989) [THOLEN1984, THOLEN1989];
Barucci, et al. (1987) [BARUCCIETAL1987]; Tedesco et al. (1989)
[TEDESCOETAL1989]; Howell, et al. (1994) [HOWELLETAL1994], Xu et al. (1995)
[XUETAL1995], Bus and Binzel (2002) [BUS&BINZEL2002B], S3OS2
[LAZZAROETAL2004], and Bus-DeMeo [DEMEOETAL2009].
The data set contains entries for 2615 objects. Each of the eight
taxonomies represented in this data set produced classifications for a
subset of these objects:
Tholen (1984, 1989) 978 objects
Barucci et al. (1987) 438 objects
Tedesco et al. (1989) 357 objects
Howell et al. (1994) 112 objects
Xu et al. (1995) 221 objects
Bus and Binzel (2002) 1447 objects
Lazzaro et al. (2004) 820 objects
DeMeo et al. (2009) 371 objects
Asteroid taxonomy is the grouping of asteroids into a small number of
classes whose members have similar spectral reflectance properties. The
classification efforts prior to 1990 utilized only the reflectivities
between 0.3 and 1.1 microns for this purpose (see Zellner et al. 1985 and
Tedesco 1989); more recently, infrared data extending to 2.5 microns were
used for a new classification scheme (Howell et al. 1994).
There are many different ways to perform this type of cluster analysis, and
the different classifications tabulated in this dataset represent different
algorithms developed during the past twenty years (Tholen 1984, Barucci et
al. 1987, Tedesco et al. 1989, Howell et al. 1994, Xu et al. 1995, and Bus
and Binzel 2002), as well as an extension of one of these algorithms to
additional objects (Tholen 1989, Mueller et al. 1992, Lazzaro et al. 2004).
Detailed descriptions of each method can be found in the corresponding
In this particular dataset, the parameter fields indicate which parameters
were used to arrive at the classification for the corresponding asteroid in
each of the taxonomies. A number indicates the number of color indices
utilized, the letter 'G' indicates that a groundbased radiometric albedo was
also utilized, and the letter 'I' indicates that an IRAS radiometric albedo
was utilized. The letter 'A' indicates that an albedo of unspecified source
was used to eliminate some other possible classes based on the spectrum
alone. The letter 'S' indicates that the classification is based on a
medium resolution spectrum published by Chapman and Gaffey (1979), while the
higher resolution spectra obtained by Xu et al. (1995) and Bus and Binzel
(2002) are indicated by a lowercase 's'. The Howell et al. (1994)
classifications are all based on a combination of 8-color (Zellner et al.
1985) and 52-color (Bell et al. 1988) data, resampled at 65 points to
provide more uniform wavelength sampling.
The S3OS2 (Lazzaro et al.) survey provides two classifications, one a
'Tholen-like' classification but with the introduction of additional classes
Caa and K, and one according to the method of Bus and Binzel (2002). Albedo
was not used in deriving the S3OS2 classifications. The effective spectral
range for the S3OS2 survey was 4900-9200 Angstroms.
The Bus-DeMeo (DeMeo et al. 2009) classification is accompanied by a
reference to the published observations that were used to classify each
Five entries have a notation in the comment field regarding the
identification of the object. The details pertaining to each case are in
the column description for the comment field in the data label.
Barucci, M. A., M. T. Capria, A. Coradini, and M. Fulchignoni 1987.
Classification of asteroids using G-mode analysis. Icarus 72, 304-324.
Bell, J. F., P. D. Owensby, B. R. Hawke, and M. J. Gaffey 1988. The
52-color asteroid survey: Final results and interpretation. Lunar Planet.
Sci. Conf. XIX, 57.
Bowell, E., T. Gehrels, and B. Zellner 1979. Magnitudes, colors, types, and
adopted diameters of the asteroids. In Asteroids (T. Gehrels, Ed.), pp.
1108-1129. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Bus, S.J. and R.P. Binzel 2002. Phase II of the small main-belt asteroid
spectroscopic survey: A feature-based taxonomy. Icarus 158, 146-177.
Chapman, C. R., and M. J. Gaffey 1979. Reflectance spectra for 277
asteroids. In Asteroids (T. Gehrels, Ed.), pp. 655-687. Univ. of Arizona
DeMeo, F., R.P. Binzel, S.M. Slivan, and S.J. Bus, An extension of the Bus
asteroid taxonomy into the near-infrared, Icarus 202, 160-180, 2009.
Howell, E. S., E. Merenyi, and L. A. Lebofsky 1994. Classification of
asteroid spectra using a neural network. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10847-10865.
Lazzaro, D., C.A. Angeli, J.M. Carvano, T. Mothe-Diniz, R. Duffard, and M.
Florczak, S3OS2: The visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids, Icarus
172, 179-220, 2004.
Mueller, B. E. A., D. J. Tholen, W. K. Hartmann, and D. P. Cruikshank 1992.
Extraordinary colors of asteroidal object (5145) 1992 AD. Icarus 97,
Tedesco, E. F. 1989. Asteroid magnitudes, UBV colors, and IRAS albedos and
diameters. In Asteroids II (R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, and M. S. Matthews,
Eds.), pp. 1090-1138. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Tedesco, E. F., J. G. Williams, D. L. Matson, G. J. Veeder, J. C. Gradie,
and L. A. Lebofsky 1989. A three-parameter asteroid taxonomy. Astron. J.
Tholen, D. J. 1984. Asteroid Taxonomy from Cluster Analysis of Photometry.
Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona.
Tholen, D. J. 1989. Asteroid taxonomic classifcations. In Asteroids II (R.
P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, and M. S. Matthews, Eds.), pp. 1139-1150. Univ. of
Arizona Press, Tucson.
Xu, S., R. P. Binzel, T. H. Burbine, S. J. Bus 1995. Small main-belt
asteroid spectroscopic survey: Initial Results. Icarus 115, 1-35.
Zellner, B., D. J. Tholen, and E. F. Tedesco 1985. The eight-color asteroid
survey: Results for 589 minor planets. Icarus 61, 355-416.
The asteroid taxonomy data set was first reviewed and ingested in 1993, and
was updated in 1997 to include the neural net taxonomy of Howell et al.
(1994) [HOWELLETAL1994]. It was updated in 1999 to include the taxonomic
classifications of the SMASS survey, Xu et al. (1995) [XUETAL1995]. In 2002
it was updated to include the classifications of the SMASSII survey, Bus and
Binzel (2002) [BUS&BINZEL2002]. In 2005 it was updated to include the
taxonomy of the S3OS2 survey [LAZZAROETAL2004]. In 2010 it was updated to
include the Bus-DeMeo classifications.
The data table includes taxonomic classifications and the parameters used to
derived the classification in many of the classification systems.