Data Set Information
DATA_SET_NAME ROSETTA-ORBITER 67P RSI 1/2/3 PRELANDING 0291 V1.0
DATA_SET_ID RO-C-RSI-1/2/3-PRL-0291-V1.0
NSSDC_DATA_SET_ID
DATA_SET_TERSE_DESCRIPTION This is a ROS RSI Global Gravity measurement covering the time 2014-09-13T06:22:02.000 to 2014-09-13T17:49:53.500.
DATA_SET_DESCRIPTION
Data Set Overview
================
      The Rosetta (RO) Radio Science (RSI) Data Archive is a
      time-ordered collection of raw and partially processed data
      collected during the Rosetta Mission to Churymov-Gerasimenko.
      For more information on the investigations see the RSI User
      Manual [RSIUSERMANUAL2004] in the DOCUMENT/RSI_DOC folder.

      This is a Global Gravity measurement covering the time
      2014-09-13T06:22:02.000 to 2014-09-13T17:49:53.500.

      This data set was collected during the Rosetta Mission Prelanding
       Phase (PRL) - on route to comet Churymov-Gerasimenko.




      For more information about RSI measurements see INST.CAT or the
      RSI User Manual [RSIUSERMANUAL2004].


Mission Phase Definition
========================
Mission phase abbreviations are defined in CATALOG/MISSION.CAT and
DOCUMENT/ESA_DOC/RO_EST_TN_3372.PDF.



General description of radio science data
=========================================

 Closed-loop and Open-loop data:
================================
      There are in principle two different ways to record radio
      science data: Open-loop and closed-loop data.

      The CLOSED-LOOP system used a phase-lock loop in the receiver to
      track the downlink signal, reporting both amplitude and fre-
      quency at rates typically of 1-10 times per second.

      In the OPEN-LOOP system, the signal was simply converted to a
      baseband frequency range; the entire passband was sampled and
      recorded for later processing. Typical open-loop sampling rates
      for ROS were 2000 complex samples per second.

      CLOSED-LOOP data are efficient for characterizing slowly
      changing signals; OPEN-LOOP data (because of their much higher
      volume) are usually used when the signal is very dynamic - such
      as during an occultation or bistatic radar measurement.

      The data set includes four primary data types with respect to
      the two different ground station systems. These systems are on
      the one hand the ESA ground station in New Norcia, Australia
      (NNO) and the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN).

CLOSED-LOOP data types:
     |
     |- ESA: Intermediate Frequency Modulation System (IFMS)
     |       Closed-Loop (CL)
     |
     |             In this data set file names of data recorded at the
     |             New Norcia IFMS closed loop system start with the
     |             string 'R32_ICL'
     |
     |             IFMS CL consists of Doppler and Ranging data at
     |             selected sample rates. The sample rate is usually
     |             1/s.
     |             The only exception are occultation data where the
     |             sample rate should be 10/s to get a good enough
     |             vertical resolution of the atmosphere.
     |             Ranging are only recorded for gravity measurements.
     |
     |             Thus the IFMS closed loop has three recording
     |             systems IFMS 1, IFMS 2 and IFMS 3
     |             The standard_data_product_id in the data label
     |             specifies on which system the data was recorded.
     |
     |             RSI measurements are usually done in TWO-WAY
     |             configuration: that is an uplink signal goes up
     |             (This is usually X-Band but the uplink signal can
     |             also be S-Band) and the ground station receives a
     |             dual frequency simultaneous and coherent downlink
     |             signal.
     |
     |             IFMS 1 is configured for the uplink signal. It
     |             receives X-Band downlink if uplink was X-Band and
     |             S-Band downlink if uplink was S-Band.
     |             IFMS 2 acts at backup.
     |             IFMS 3 records the second downlink signal. This is
     |             usually S-Band. But can also be X-Band when the
     |             uplink was S-Band.
     |
     |                 IFMS 1 D1 is fixed to a sample rate of 1/s
     |                 IFMS 1 D2 is on fixed to a sample rate of 1/10s
     |
     |             In addition each Doppler recording system has also
     |             two Doppler channels which can record simultaneous-
     |             ly and act as an additional backup system.
     |             Therefore for each IFMS system there should be at a
     |             given time two Doppler files and two Auto Gain
     |             Control files recorded. The file names of these
     |             data contain the string '_D1' or '_D2' for Doppler
     |             and '_G1' or '_G2' for Auto Gain control files and
     |             they will be on different subfolders within the
     |             data directory. See further down the description of
     |             the DATA Directory.
     |
     |             For these data files only X-Band ranging was
     |             possible. Ranging data was nominally recorded on
     |             IFMS1.
     |
     |-  DSN:
          |-Tracking and Navigation File (TNF)
          |
          | The Tracking and Navigation File (TNF) is the primary out-
          | put from the DSN closed-loop receiver system.  These are
          | large files, accumulating at the rate of approximately 3
          | megabytes (MB) per hour of antenna operation. The files
          | comprise nearly 20 block types, each designed to carry
          | data of interest to a particular navigation, telecommuni-
          | cations, or science community.
          | The blocks are described by TNF_SIS.TXT in the
          | DOCUMENT/DSN_DOC directory. Fields include:
          |      Uplink and downlink antenna numbers
          |      Spacecraft number
          |      Equipment identifiers, status flags, and calibration
          |      values
          |      Time tags and frequency bands
          |      Transmitted and received phase and frequency
          |      Transmitted and received ranging information
          |      Noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, and uncertain-
          |      ties
          |
          |-Orbit Data Files (ODF)
          |
          | For many applications the TNF is too cumbersome. The ODF
          | is an edited and partially processed version of the TNF.
          | It is a smaller file, often issued in daily increments of
          | about 0.2 MB. It contains the most important information
          | (range and Doppler)
          | needed by spacecraft navigators and investigators
          | interested in determining gravitational fields of bodies
          | such as Mars. Each ODF is accompanied by a full PDS label
          | which describes both the content and format of the
          | associated file. ODF data fields include:
          | Narrowband spacecraft VLBI, Doppler mode (cycles)
          | Narrowband spacecraft VLBI, phase mode (cycles)
          | Narrowband quasar VLBI, Doppler mode (cycles)
          | Narrowband quasar VLBI, phase mode (cycles)
          | Wideband spacecraft VLBI (nanoseconds)
          | Wideband quasar VLBI (nanoseconds)
          | One-way Doppler (Hertz)
          | Two-way Doppler (Hertz)
          | Three-way Doppler (Hertz)
          | One-way total count phase (cycles)
          | Two-way total count phase (cycles)
          | Three-way total count phase (cycles)
          | PRA planetary operational discrete spectrum range (range
          |      units)
          | SRA planetary operational discrete spectrum range (range
          |      units)
          | RE(GSTDN) range (nanoseconds)
          | Azimuth angle (degrees)
          | Elevation angle (degrees)
          | Hour angle (degrees)
          | Declination angle (degrees)
          |
          | For more information please refer to document
          | [DSN_ODF_TRK-2-18] in the DOCUMENT/DSN_DOC folder.


Open- Loop data types:
     |
     |-ESA: Intermediate Frequency Modulation System (IFMS) Open-Loop
     |       (OL)
     |
     |-DSN: Radio- Science Receiver (RSR)
     |
     |      The Radio Science Receiver (RSR) is a computer-
     |      controlled open loop receiver that digitally records a
     |      spacecraft signal through the use of an analog to
     |      digital converter (ADC) and up to four digital filter
     |      sub-channels.  The digital samples from each
     |      sub-channel are stored to disk in one second records
     |      in real time. In near real time the one second records
     |      are partitioned and formatted into a sequence of RSR
     |      Standard Format Data Units (SFDUs) which are
     |      transmitted to the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations
     |      System (AMMOS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
     |      Included in each RSR SFDU are the ancillary data
     |      necessary to reconstruct the signal represented by the
     |      recorded data samples.
     |
     |      Each SFDU is defined here as a single row in a
     |      PDS TABLE object; later SFDUs are later rows.  The
     |      first fields in each row contain the ancillary data
     |      (time tags and frequency estimates, for example) that
     |      applied while the samples at the end of the record
     |      were being collected. The object definitions below
     |      explain where the fields are and what the contents
     |      represent.
     |
     |      Analysis of variations in the amplitude, frequency,
     |      and phase of the recorded signals provides information
     |      on the ring structure, atmospheric density, magnetic
     |      field, and charged particle environment of planets
     |      which occult the spacecraft. Variations in the
     |      recorded signal can also be used for detection of
     |      gravitational waves.
     |
     |      DSN open-loop receivers sample a narrow part of the micro-
     |      wave spectrum near the spacecraft transmitting frequency.
     |      For radio occultation tests, two RSR's were used - one
     |      each for X-RCP and S-RCP with output sampled at rates of
     |      2000 (complex; 16-bit I, 16-bit Q).
     |      The data were examined for compliance with data acquisi-
     |      tion procedures and to measure the frequency/stability of
     |      the radiolink. Four RSR's (X-RCP, S-RCP, X-LCP, and S-LCP)
     |      each sample at a rate of 25000 (complex; 16-bit I,
     |      16-bit Q) to test bistatic radar data acquisition.
     |
     |     Header information accompanying each RSR record included:
     |
     |     Date and time of the first data sample
     |     Sample rate and channel assignments
     |     Receiver local oscillator phase and frequency
     |     Attenuator settings
     |     RMS voltages at several stages in the receiving chain
     |
     |
     |      For more information please refer to document
     |      [JPL_D-16765_RSR] in the DOCUMENT/DSN_DOC folder.


Data files
==========
          Data files are:

          The tracking files from Deep Space Network (DSN) and from
          the Intermediate Frequency Modulation System (IFMS) used by
          the ESA ground stations. Level 1A to level 2 data, the
          predicted and reconstructed Doppler and range files are
          archived.

          All Level 1A binary data files will have the file name
          extension eee = .DAT
          IFMS Level 1A ASCII data files will have the file name
          extension eee = .RAW
          Level 1B and 2 tabulated ASCII data files will have the file
          name extension eee = .TAB
          Binary data files will have the file name extension .DAT

     Data levels
     ----------
         It should be noted that these data levels which are also used
         in the file names and data directories are PSA data levels
         whereas in the PDS label files CODMAC levels are used.

          PSA data level | CODMAC level
          -----------------------------
               1A        |      1
               1B        |      2
               2         |      3

    Data Set Identifier
    -------------------
          The 'DATA_SET_ID' is a unique alphanumeric identifier for
          the data sets.

          It looks something like:

                      XX-Y-ZZZ-U-VVV-NNNN-WWW

         Acronym |    Description          | Example
         --------------------------------------------------------
            XX   | Instrument Host ID      | RO
         --------------------------------------------------------
             Y   | Target ID               | C (for Comet) or X for
                 |                         | others like for example
                 |                         | the sun during solar
                 |                         | conjunction measurements
         --------------------------------------------------------
            ZZZ  | Instrument ID           | RSI
         --------------------------------------------------------
             U   | Data level (here        | 1/2/3 (Data set
                 | CODMAC levels are used) | contains raw, edited
                 |                         | and calibrated data)
        ---------------------------------------------------------
           VVV   | RSI mission phase       | CR1
        ---------------------------------------------------------
          NNNN   | 4 digit sequence number | 0123
                 | which is identical to   |
                 | the Radio Science       |
                 | VOLUME_ID               |
        ---------------------------------------------------------
          WWW    | Version number          | V1.0

        RSI data were originally archived as volumes rather than data
        sets. However, ESA PSA does not use volume but data set.
        To avoid confusion it was specified that one RSI data volume
        is equal one data set. Thus the data set was also assigned a
        4 digit sequence number which is identical to the one used in
        the Radio Science VOLUME_ID. If the data_set_id is known it is
        automatically specified on which volume the data set is found.

    VOLUME_ID
    ---------
        The VOLUME_ID is a unique alphanumeric identifier for a single
        RSI data volume, including a complete measurement.

                Two kinds of Volume ID's are used, the ESA and RSI Volume_Id:

        ESA PSA Volume_Id:
        ------------------
        The Volume ID is formed using a mission identifier, an
        instrument identifier of  3 characters, followed by an
        underscore character, followed by a 4-digit sequence number.
        In the 4-digit number, the first one represents the
        kind of measurement, the remaining digits define the range of
        volumes in the volume set.

              The first digit of the 4-digit sequence number:
              0: Commissioning
              1: Occultation
              2: Gravity
              3: Solar Conjunction
              4: Bistatic Radar
              5: Passive/Active Checkouts
              6: Swing-bys/Fly-bys
              7: Cometary Coma Observations

        The Volume-ID looks like:

                           XXXXX-ZZZZ

             Acronym | Description                       | Example
         ----------------------------------------------------------
             XXXXX   | Mission ID and Instrument ID      | RORSI
         ----------------------------------------------------------
              ZZZZ   | 4 digit sequence number           | 0123


        RSI Volume_Id:
        --------------
        The Radio Science Volume_Id is a number which is incremented
        measurement by measurement, independent what kind of
        measurement was conducted. The RSI Volume ID is used within
        the DATA_SET_ID. The Radio Science Volume_Id can be found in
        the logbook located in DOCUMENT/RSI_DOC.



    Descriptive files
    -----------------
          Descriptive files contain information in order to support
          the processing and analysis of data files. The following
          file types are defined as descriptive files with extension
          eee =
         .LBL  PDS label files
         .CFG  IFMS configuration
         .AUX  Ancillary files (event files, attitude files,
               ESOC orbit files, products, SPICE files)
         .TXT   Information (text) files


File naming convention
======================

      All incoming data files will be renamed and all processed data
      files will be named after the following file naming convention
      format. The original file name of the incoming tracking data
      files will be stored in the corresponding label file as
      source_product_id.
      The new PDS compliant file name will be the following:

                     rggttttlll_sss_yydddhhmm_qq.eee


    Acronym |                Description               | Examples
    =============================================================
      r     |  space craft name abbreviation           | R
            |  R = Rosetta                             |
            |  M = Mars Express                        |
            |  V = Venus Express                       |
    -------------------------------------------------------------
      gg    |  Ground station ID:                      | 43
            |                                          |
            |  00: valid for all ground stations;      |
            |  various ground stations or independent  |
            |  of ground station or not feasible to    |
            |  appoint to a specific ground station or |
            |  complex                                 |
            |                                          |
            |  DSN complex Canberra:                   |
            |  ---------------------                   |
            |  34 = 34 m BWG (beam waveguide)          |
            |  40 = complex                            |
            |  43 = 70 m                               |
            |  45 = 34 m HEF (high efficiency)         |
            |                                          |
            |  ESA New Norcia antenna:                 |
            |  -----------------------                 |
            |  32 = 35 m                               |
            |                                          |
            |  ESA Cebreros antenna:                   |
            |  ---------------------                   |
            |  62 = 35 m                               |
            |                                          |
            |  ESA Malargue antenna:                   |
            |  ---------------------                   |
            |  84 = 35 m                               |
            |                                          |
            |  DSN complex Goldstone:                  |
            |  ----------------------                  |
            |  10 = complex                            |
            |  14 = 70 m                               |
            |  15 = 34 m HEF                           |
            |  24 = 34 m BWG                           |
            |  25 = 34 m BWG                           |
            |  26 = 34 m BWG                           |
            |  27 = 34 m HSBWG                         |
            |                                          |
            |  ESA Kourou antenna:                     |
            |  -------------------                     |
            |  75 = 15 m                               |
            |                                          |
            |  DSN complex Madrid:                     |
            |  -------------------                     |
            |  54 = 34 m BWG                           |
            |  55 = 34 m BWG                           |
            |  63 = 70 m                               |
            |  65 = 34 m HEF                           |
            |  60 = complex                            |
            |                                          |
    -------------------------------------------------------------
     tttt   | data source identifier:                  | TNF0
            |                                          |
            | Level 1A and 1B:                         |
            | ----------------                         |
            | ODF0 = ODF closed loop                   |
            | TNF0 = TNF closed loop (L1A)             |
            | T000-T017 = TNF closed loop (L1B)        |
            | ICL1 = IFMS 1 closed loop                |
            | ICL2 = IFMS 2 closed loop                |
            | ICL3 = IFMS RS closed loop               |
            | IOL3 = IFMS RS open loop                 |
            | R1Az = RSR block 1A open loop            |
            | R1Bz = RSR block 1B open loop            |
            | R2Az = RSR block 2A open loop            |
            | R2Bz = RSR block 2B open loop            |
            | R3Az = RSR block 3A open loop            |
            | R3Bz = RSR block 3B open loop            |
            | z=1...4 subchannel number                |
            | ESOC = ancillary files from ESOC DDS     |
            | DSN0 = ancillary files from DSN          |
            | SUE0= ancillary and information files    |
            |       coming from Stanford University    |
            |       center for radar astronomy         |
            |                                          |
            | Level 2:                                 |
            | -------                                  |
            | UNBW = predicted and reconstructed       |
            |         Doppler and range files          |
            | ICL1 = IFMS 1 closed loop                |
            | ICL2 = IFMS 2 closed-loop                |
            | ICL3 = IFMS RS closed-loop               |
            | ODF0 = DSN ODF closed loop file          |
            | T000-T017 = TNF closed loop file         |
            | RSR0 = DSN RSR open loop file            |
            | RSRC = DSN RSR open loop file containing |
            |        data with right circular          |
            |        polarization (only solar          |
            |        conjunction measurement)          |
            | RSRL = DSN RSR open loop file containing |
            |        data with left circular           |
            |        polarization (only solar          |
            |        conjunction measurement)          |
            | NAIF = JPL or ESTEC SPICE Kernels        |
            | SUE0 = ancillary information and         |
            |        calibration files coming from     |
            |        Stanford University center for    |
            |        radar astronomy                   |
            |                                          |
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
        lll | Data archiving level                     | L1A
            | L1A = Level 1A                           |
            | L1B = Level 1B                           |
            | L02 = Level 2                            |
            | L03 = Level 3                            |
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
        sss | data type                                |
            |                                          |
            | IFMS data files level 1A:                |
            | -------------------------                |
            | D1X uncalibrated Doppler 1 X-Band        |
            | D1S uncalibrated Doppler 1 S-Band        |
            | D2X uncalibrated Doppler 2 X-Band        |
            | D2S uncalibrated Doppler 2 S-Band        |
            | C1X Doppler 1 X-Band equip. calibration  |
            | C1S Doppler 1 S-Band equip. calibration  |
            | C2X Doppler 2 X-Band equip. calibration  |
            | C2S Doppler 2 S-Band equip. calibration  |
            | RGX uncalibrated X-Band range            |
            | RGS uncalibrated S-Band range            |
            | MET meteo file                           |
            | AG1 AGC 1 files                          |
            | AG2 AGC 2 files                          |
            | RCX X-Band range equip. calibration      |
            | RCS S-Band range equip. calibration      |
            |                                          |
            | DSN data files level 1A:                 |
            | -------------------------                |
            | ODF original orbit files (closed loop)   |
            | RSR radio science receiver open-loop file|
            | TNF file (closed loop)                   |
            |                                          |
            | ESOC ancillary data level 1A:            |
            | -----------------------------            |
            | ATR attitude file, reconstructed         |
            | EVT orbit event file                     |
            | OHC orbit file, heliocentric cruise      |
            | OMO orbit file, marscentric, operational |
            |                                          |
            | DSN Calibration files level 1A:          |
            | -------------------------------          |
            | TRO DSN tropospheric calibration model   |
            | MET DSN meteorological file              |
            | ION DSN ionospheric calibration model    |
            | BCL SUE Bistatic radar temperature       |
            |      calibration                         |
            |                                          |
            | DSN ancillary data level 1A:             |
            | -----------------------------            |
            | DKF DSN Keyword File                     |
            | MON DSN monitor data                     |
            | NMC DSN Network Monitor and Control file |
            | SOE DSN Sequence of Events               |
            | EOP DSN earth orientation parameter file |
            | ENB SUE Experimenter Notebook            |
            | MFT SUE Manifest files                   |
            | LIT DSN Light time file                  |
            | HEA DSN Data collection list             |
            | OPT DSN Orbit and timing geometry file   |
            |                                          |
            | DSN Browse Plots level 1A:               |
            | --------------------------               |
            | BRO bistatic radar 4-panel plots (browse)|
            |                                          |
            | IFMS data files level 1B:                |
            | -------------------------                |
            | D1X uncalibrated Doppler 1 X-band        |
            | D1S uncalibrated Doppler 1 S-band        |
            | D2X uncalibrated Doppler 2 X-band        |
            | D2S uncalibrated Doppler 2 S-band        |
            | C1X Doppler 1 X-band equip. calibration  |
            | C1S Doppler 1 S-band equip. calibration  |
            | C2X Doppler 2 X-band equip. calibration  |
            | C2S Doppler 2 S-band equip. calibration  |
            | RGX uncalibrated X-band range            |
            | RGS uncalibrated S-band range            |
            | MET meteo                                |
            | AG1 AGC 1                                |
            | AG2 AGC 2                                |
            | RCX X-band range equip. calibration      |
            | RCS S-band range equip. calibration      |
            |                                          |
            | DSN ODF data files level 1B:             |
            | -----------------------------            |
            | DPS  S-band Doppler                      |
            | DPX  X-band Doppler                      |
            | RGS uncalibrated S-Band ranging file     |
            | RGX uncalibrated X-Band ranging file     |
            | RMP uplink frequency ramp rate file      |
            |                                          |
            | DSN calibration data level 1B:           |
            | -----------------------------            |
            | MET meteorological file                  |
            |                                          |
            | IFMS data level 2:                       |
            | -----------------                        |
            | D1X uncalibrated Doppler 1 X-Band        |
            | D1S uncalibrated Doppler 1 S-Band        |
            | D2X uncalibrated Doppler 2 X-Band        |
            | D2S uncalibrated Doppler 2 S-Band        |
            | RGX uncalibrated X-Band range            |
            | RGS uncalibrated S-Band range            |
            | RCX X-Band range equip. calibration      |
            | RCS S-Band range equip. calibration      |
            |                                          |
            | IFMS Browse plots level 2                |
            | -------------------------                |
            | B1X Quick look plots of calibrated       |
            |     Doppler 1 X-band                     |
            | B1S Quick look plots of calibrated       |
            |     Doppler 1 S-band                     |
            | B2X Quick look plots of calibrated       |
            |     Doppler 2 X-band                     |
            | B2S Quick look plots of calibrated       |
            |     Doppler 2 S-band                     |
            |                                          |
            | DSN level 2 data:                        |
            | -----------------                        |
            | DPX calibrated Doppler X-band            |
            | DPS calibrated Doppler S-band            |
            | RGS calibrated S-band ranging file       |
            | RGX calibrated X-band ranging file       |
            | BSR bistatic radar power spectra         |
            | SRG bistatic radar surface reflection    |
            |     geometry file                        |
            |                                          |
            | DSN level 2 calibration data:            |
            | ----------------------------             |
            | SRF Surface Reflection Filter Files      |
            |                                          |
            | orbit files level 2:                     |
            | --------------------                     |
            | PTW Doppler & range prediction two-way   |
            | PON Doppler & range prediction on        |
            | RTW reconstructed Doppler & range orbit  |
            |     file two-way                         |
            | RON reconstructed Doppler & range orbit  |
            |     file one-way                         |
            | LOC heliocentric state vector file       |
            |                                          |
            | Constellation file Level 2:              |
            | ---------------------------              |
            | MAR Mars constellation file              |
            | VEN Venus constellation file             |
            | P67 Churyumov-Gerasimenko                |
            |     constellation file                   |
            |                                          |
            | SPICE kernel files level 2:              |
            | ---------------------------              |
            | BSP binary spacecraft/location           |
            |     kernel file                          |
            | FRM frame kernel file                    |
            | ORB orbit numbering file                 |
            | PBC predicted attitude kernel file       |
            | PCK planetary constant kernel            |
            | SCK space craft clock kernel             |
            | TLS leap second kernel file              |
            |                                          |
            | Science data level 3:                    |
            | ---------------------                    |
            | SCP solar corona science                 |
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
         yy | Year                                     | 04
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
        ddd | Day of year                              | 153
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
       hhmm | Sample hour, minute start time           | 1135
            | For IFMS files this is the ESOC          |
            | reference time tag which usually         |
            | coincides with the first sample time.    |
            | For IFMS Ranging files however this is   |
            | not true. Here the reference time tag    |
            | is two-way light time before the first   |
            | actual measurement.                      |
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
         qq | Sequence or version number               | 01
    --------|------------------------------------------|--------
        eee | .DAT binary files (Level 1A)             | .RAW
            | .TAB ASCII table data file               |
            | .AUX ancillary file                      |
            | .CFG IFMS configuration file (Level 1B)  |
            | .LBL PDS label files                     |
            | .TXT information files                   |
            | .RAW ASCII data files (Level 1A)         |
            | .LOG Processing log files  (Level 2)     |



    Processing (DSN)
    ================
      TNF's are screened for 'bad' data points by the JPL Radio Metric
      Data Conditioning Team (RMDCT) before the files are processed to
      ODF's. The TNF's included in this archive, however, are the pre-
      screened versions.

      The open-loop (RSR) data in the archive have been assembled from
      individual records (packets) into files. They have not
      otherwise been processed.

      The Level 2 radio occultation data have been processed as
      follows.

        The RSR samples were digitally filtered to reduce bandwidth;
        in the process they were also converted from 16-bit I and
        16-bit Q complex integer samples to 64-bit I and 64-bit Q
        double precision complex floating point samples.  The complex
        floating point samples were Fourier transformed and estimates
        made of the carrier amplitude and frequency and their uncer-
        tainties.

        The reconstructed spacecraft trajectory, planetary epheme-
        redes, records of uplink and downlink tuning, and other data
        were used to calculate the expected carrier frequency at the
        receiving antenna.

        The Level 2 products are tables of the observed amplitude, its
        uncertainty, the observed frequency, its uncertainty, and the
        difference between the observed and the expected frequency as
        a function of time.  Separate tables have been created for
        each RSR.

      The Level 2 bistatic radar spectra (SPC) have been processed as
      follows.

        The RSR samples were converted from 16-bit I and 16-bit Q
        complex integer samples to 64-bit I and 64-bit Q double
        precision complex floating point samples.  In the process they
        were digitally corrected for non-uniform spectral response of
        the receiving system.  This was done by computing spectra from
        series of time samples and dividing each spectrum by the
        square root of a power spectrum computed from many minutes of
        noise.  The amplitude of the samples was then adjusted so that
        power spectra in each receiver channel would have an amplitude
        proportional to kTsysB where k is Boltzmann's constant, Tsys
        is the receiver system temperature in Kelvin, and  B  is the
        width of one frequency bin (spectral resolution) in the power
        spectrum.

        Then the power spectra (e.g., XR*conj(XR)) and cross spectra
        (e.g., XR*conj(XL)) were computed.

    Processing (IFMS)
    ================
      For information about the processing of IFMS data please see in
      the DOCUMENT folder.

Structure of DATA Directory
===========================

     Please note that the following description lists all possible
     subfolders. If however there is no data to fill some of these
     folders they will not be generated.

       |-DATA
       |   |-LEVEL1A
       |   |    |-CLOSED_LOOP
       |   |    |  |-DSN
       |   |    |  |   |-ODF Orbit Data Files
       |   |    |  |   |-TNF Tracking and Navigation Files
       |   |    |  |
       |   |    |  |-IFMS
       |   |    |      |-AG1 Auto Gain Control 1 data files
       |   |    |      |-AG2 Auto Gain Control 2 data files
       |   |    |      |-DP1 Doppler 1 data files
       |   |    |      |-DP2 Doppler 2 data files
       |   |    |      |-RNG Ranging data files
       |   |    |
       |   |    |-OPEN_LOOP
       |   |       |-DSN
       |   |       |   |-RSR Radio-Science Receiver data files
       |   |
       |   |-LEVEL1B
       |   |    |-CLOSED_LOOP
       |   |    |     |-DSN
       |   |    |     |   |-ODF Orbit Data Files
       |   |    |     |
       |   |    |     |-IFMS
       |   |    |     |   |- AG1 Auto Gain Control 1 data files
       |   |    |     |   |- AG2 Auto Gain Control 2 data files
       |   |    |     |   |- DP1 Doppler 1 data files
       |   |    |     |   |- DP2 Doppler 2 data files
       |   |    |     |   |- RNG Ranging data files
       |   |
       |   |-LEVEL2
       |   |    |- CLOSED_LOOP
       |   |    |      |-DSN
       |   |    |      |   |-DPS Doppler S-Band files
       |   |    |      |   |-DPX Doppler X-Band files
       |   |    |      |
       |   |    |      |-IFMS
       |   |    |      |   |-DP1 Doppler 1 data files
       |   |    |      |   |-DP2 Doppler 2 data files
       |   |    |      |   |-RNG Ranging data files
       |   |    |
       |   |    |- OPEN_LOOP
       |   |    |      |-DSN
       |   |    |      |  |-DPS Doppler S-Band files
       |   |    |      |  |-DPX Doppler X-Band files
       |   |    |      |  |-BSR Bistatic radar power spectra
       |   |    |      |  |-SRG Bistatic radar surface reflection
       |   |    |      |  |     geometry file
       |   |    |      |
       |   |    |      |-IFMS
       |   |    |      |   |-DP1 Doppler 1 data files
       |   |    |      |   |-DP2 Doppler 2 data files
       |   |    |      |   |-RNG Ranging data files




      Files in the DATA Directory
      ---------------------------

      Files in the DATA directory are:

      Data Level 1A:
      --------------

      Level 1A data are incoming raw tracking data files obtained
      either from ESA IFMS or DSN. All incoming data files will be
      renamed after the file naming convention format defined in
      section 5.1 of the RSI File Naming Convention document
      [RSIFNC2004] and get a minimal detached label file .LBL. The
      original file name of the incoming tracking data files will be
      stored in the according label file as SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID. These
      files have the file extension .RAW if ASCII and .DAT if binary
      files.

      TNF's are screened for 'bad' data points by the JPL Radio Metric
      Data Conditioning Team (RMDCT) before the files are processed to
      ODF's. The TNF's included in this archive, however, are the pre-
      screened versions.

        Tracking and Navigation Files (TNF Directory)
        ---------------------------------------------
        TNF's became available within a few hours of the completion of
        a Rosetta pass.

        Orbit Data Files
        ----------------
        ODF's were typically issued daily throughout the RO mission
        with weekend data being consolidated into a single file on
        Monday. Typical ODF's have sizes 15-50 kB.
        Sample rates typically are 1/sec or 1/(60 sec).

        Radio Science Receiver Files (RSR Directory)
        --------------------------------------------
        Each RSR generated a stream of packets which could be
        assembled into files of arbitrary length.  It was decided,
        after some experimentation, that files containing about 300 MB
        were the largest that could be easily manipulated in the
        analysis computers available in 2003.  With a small number of
        exceptions, this is the largest file size that will be found
        in the RSR directory.


      The open-loop (RSR) data in the archive have been assembled from
      individual records (packets) into files.  They have not other-
      wise been processed.

      IFMS Data Level 1B:
      -------------------

      Level 1B files are created from level 1A (raw tracking data) as
      edited ASCII formatted file.

      Three files are generated for each ESA IFMS Level 1A data file:
            Level 1B IFMS data file (extension .TAB)
            Level 1B IFMS configuration file (extension .CFG)
            Level 1B IFMS label file (extension .LBL)
      The label file contains the description of the .TAB as well as
      of the .CFG file.

      Up to eight files are generated for each DSN ODF Level 1A file:
            Level 1B ODF Doppler S-Band data file + label file
            Level 1B ODF Doppler X-Band data file + label file
            Level 1B ODF Ranging S-Band data file + label file
            Level 1B ODF Ranging X-Band data file + label file

      Cologne is processing IFMS and ODF data. For RSR there will be
      no level 1B files.

      Data Level 2:
      -------------

      Level 2 data are calibrated data after further processing. The
      file format is in ASCII. This data level can be used for further
      scientific interpretation. The keyword OBSERVATION_TYPE in the
      Level 2 data labels indicates which kind of measurement was
      done. Keyword values are: Occultation, Target Gravity, Global
      Gravity, Solar Conjunction, Bistatic Radar, Commissioning and
      Steins/Lutetia Flyby. Commissioning measurements were carried
      out on several days during the cruise phases. These are
      measurements where the equipment on board the spacecraft and on
      the ground station was tested.

      IFMS Level 2 input files:
      -------------------------
            There may be several Doppler 1 X-Band files in level 1A
            which will be merged on level 2. The same is true for all
            other Doppler file type and Ranging X and S-Band files.
            Only files with continuous sequenced numbers (the file
            names are the same only the sequence number varies for
            these files) are merged together. Otherwise a new Level
            02 data file is created (merging data files with a new
            sequence of files).
            The level 2 source_product_id however gives the RAW IFMS
            file names since the raw files are used for processing.
            But the content of the IFMS raw files are identical to the
            corresponding level 1A IFMS files in one data set, only
            the file name is different. And the source_product_id of
            the level 1A files gives the original raw IFMS files. In
            addition the level 1A files have almost the same file name
            as the corresponding level 2 files.
            The corresponding level 1A files can be found in
            DATA/LEVEL1A/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/DP1 for Doppler 1 files
            DATA/LEVEL1A/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/DP2 for Doppler 2 files
            DATA/LEVEL1A/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/RNG for Ranging files

            ----------------------------------------------------------
            Example:
            R32ICL1L02_D1X_040931103_00.TAB
            is a level 2 Doppler 1 X-Band file

            in R32ICL1L02_D1X_040931103_00.LBL
            the following SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID is given:

            SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID = {NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0000,
                                 NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0001,
                                 NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0002}

            which are the raw IFMS files.
            The corresponding Level 1A files can be found in
            DATA/LEVEL1A/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/DP1

            Their names are:
            R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_00.RAW
            R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_01.RAW
            R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_02.RAW

            and the corresponding label files give the
            source_product_id as:

            in the R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_00.LBL file the
            source_product_id is given as:
            SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID  = NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0000

            in the R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_01.LBL file the
            source_product_id is given as:
            SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID  = NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0001

            in the R32ICL1L1A_D1X_040931103_02.LBL file the
            source_product_id is given as:
            SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID  = NN11_ROSE_2004_093_OP_D1_110358_0002

            Note that in this example the three level 1A files were
            merged to one level 2 files.
            The file names of the level 1A files are almost identical
            to the level 2 file name with three differences:
            - L1A instead of L02 in the file name which tells the user
            that these are level 1A and level 2 files.
            - The two digit-sequence number at the end of the file can
            be different.
            - The level 1A files have file extension .RAW whereas
            level 2 files have file extension .TAB
            ----------------------------------------------------------

            Other inputs for Doppler and Ranging files:
            -------------------------------------------
            predicted orbit file (see EXTRAS/ANCILLARY/UNI_BW)
            Meteorological file (see CALIB/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/MET)
            AGC file (see DATA/1A or 1B/CLOSED_LOOP/AGC1 or AGC2)
            Spacecraft orbit SPICE kernels (see EXTRAS/ANCILLARY/SPICE
            can also be downloaded from
            ftp://ssols01.esac.esa.int/pub/data/SPICE/ROSETTA/kernels)

            Calibration Documentation:
            --------------------------
            For documentation about Doppler and Ranging Calibration
            please see in DOCUMENT/RSI_DOC/ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3118 and
            ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3119.

            For differential Doppler:
            -------------------------
            If the processed level 2 file is for example Doppler 1
            X-Band then information from IFMS raw Doppler 1 S-Band
            files which cover approximately the same time were used
            for processing as well.
            For Doppler 1 S-Band information from IFMS raw Doppler 1
            X-Band files were used.
            Doppler 2 files were processed accordingly.
            In most cases on IFMS1 and IFMS2 X-Band data were
            recorded:
            The corresponding raw files' names start with NN11_ or
            NN12_. S-Band data were in most cases recorded at IFMS3.
            The corresponding raw files' names start with NN13_.
            If for some reason this configuration was changed this is
            indicated either at the beginning of this description or
            at the end in the anomaly report.

            For Ranging in addition are used:
            ---------------------------------
            Range calibration file (see CALIB/CLOSED_LOOP/IFMS/RCL)
            Klobuchar coefficients for Earth-Ionosphere calibration
            (can be downloaded from this site:
             http://www.aiub.unibe.ch/download/CODE/)

            The calibrated Doppler files contain observed IFMS sky
            frequency,
            X-band Doppler and S-band Doppler frequency shift,
            residual (computed using the predict file), and the
            differential Doppler.
            If only a single downlink frequency was used, a differen-
            tial Doppler cannot be computed and was set to -999.999999
            in the output file.

            The level 2 ranging files contain the observed TWLT at
            X-band or S-band, the calibrated TWLT at X-band or S-band,
            the TWLT delay at X-band or S-band and the differential
            TWLT. If only one frequency was used, the differential
            TWLT is set to -99999.9.


      IFMS Level 2 output files:
      --------------------------
            Level 2 IFMS data file (extension .TAB)
            Level 2 IFMS label file (extension .LBL)
            Level 2 IFMS log file (extension .LOG).

            The log files can be found in
            /EXTRAS/ANCILLARY/RSI/LOGFILES and contain information
            about the level 2 Doppler and Ranging data processing.

      ODF Level 2 input files:
      ------------------------
            ODF Level 1B files
            Doppler and Range prediction file
        or
            Orbit reconstructed file
            Media calibration files

            The calibrated Doppler files contain observed Doppler
            expressed as X-band Doppler or S-band Doppler, residual
            and detrended X-band or S-band Doppler (computed using the
            predict file), the detrended differential Doppler. If only
            one single frequency was used, the differential Doppler
            will be set to -999.999999.

            The level 2 ranging file contains the observed Two-Way-
            Light-Time (TWLT) at X-band or S-band, the calibrated TWLT
            at X-band or S-band, the TWLT delay at X-band or S-band
            and the differential TWLT. If only one frequency was used,
            the differential TWLT is set to -99999.9.

            Other inputs for Doppler and Ranging files:
            -------------------------------------------
            Predicted orbit file (see EXTRAS/ANCILLARY/UNI_BW)
            Meteorological file (see CALIB/CLOSED_LOOP/ODF/MET)
            Spacecraft orbit SPICE kernels (see EXTRAS/ANCILLARY/SPICE
            can also be downloaded from:
            ftp://ssols01.esac.esa.int/pub/data/SPICE/ROSETTA/kernels)

      RSR Level 2 output files:
      -------------------------
        DPS and DPX:
        ------------
        The RSR samples were digitally filtered to reduce bandwidth;
        in the process they were also converted from 16-bit I and
        16-bit Q complex integer samples to 64-bit I and 64-bit Q
        double precision complex floating point samples.  The complex
        floating point samples were Fourier transformed and estimates
        made of the carrier amplitude and frequency and their
        uncertainties.

        The reconstructed spacecraft trajectory, planetary epheme-
        redes, records of uplink and downlink tuning, and other data
        were used to calculate the expected carrier frequency at the
        receiving antenna.

        The Level 2 products are tables of the observed amplitude, its
        uncertainty, the observed frequency, its uncertainty, and the
        difference between the observed and the expected frequency as
        a function of time.  Separate tables have been created for
        each RSR.

                BSR and SRG:
        ------------
        Bistatic Radar Spectra
        ------------------------------
        SPC files were the calibrated output of partial processing of
        RSR data collected for bistatic radar. They were ASCII tables
        of power and cross-voltage spectra. All spectra for a single
        observation were collected in a single ASCII file.

        The Level 2 bistatic radar spectra (BSR) have been processed
        as follows:

        The RSR samples were converted from 16-bit I and 16-bit Q
        complex integer samples to 64-bit I and 64-bit Q double
        precision complex floating point samples.  In the process they
        were digitally corrected for non-uniform spectral response of
        the receiving system. This was done by computing spectra from
        series of time samples and dividing each spectrum by the
        square root of a power spectrum computed from many minutes of
        noise. The amplitude of the samples was then adjusted so that
        power spectra in each receiver channel would have an amplitude
        proportional to kTsysB where k is Boltzmann's constant, Tsys
        is the receiver system temperature in Kelvin, and B is the
        width of one frequency bin (spectral resolution) in the power
        spectrum. Then the power spectra (e.g., XR*conj(XR)) and cross
        spectra e.g., XR*conj(XL)) were computed.

                SRG files summarize the observation for Rosetta bistatic radar
        (BSR) observations.

        Surface Reflection Filter Files
        -------------------------------
        SRF files contain power spectra derived from noise measure-
        ments when the radio system was stable and there were no
        spacecraft signals in the passband.  SRF's were derived sepa-
        rately for each receiver channel; but the fact that the
        spectral characteristics of each receiver depended almost
        entirely on digital signal processing meant that there was
        little practical difference among channels when sampling
        rates (output bandwidths) were the same and the SRF's were
        interchangeable. SRF's were ASCII PDS SPECTRUM objects with
        attached labels.

Structure of CALIB Directory
============================
     Please note that the following description lists all possible
     subfolders. If however there is no data to fill some of these
     folders they will not be generated.

       |-CALIB
       |   |-CALINFO.TXT text description of the directory contents
       |   |
       |   |-CLOSED_LOOP
       |   |    |-DSN
       |   |    |  |-ION Ionospheric Calibration files
       |   |    |  |-MET Meteo data files
       |   |    |  |-TRO Tropospheric Calibration files
       |   |    |-IFMS
       |   |    |  |-RCL Range Calibration data files
       |   |    |  |-DCL Doppler Calibration data files
       |   |    |  |-MET Meteo data files
       |   |
       |   |-OPEN_LOOP
       |   |    |-DSN
       |   |    |  |-BCAL System temperature calibration files
       |   |    |  |-SRF Surface Reflection Filter Files
       |   |    |
       |   |    |-IFMS
       |   |    |  |-RCL Range Calibration data files
       |   |    |  |-DCL Doppler Calibration data files
       |   |    |  |-MET Meteo data files
       |   |
       |   |-UPLINK_FREQ_CORRECT
                                 Only present if the uplink frequency
                                 in one of the .RAW files was
                                 identified as wrong. The Folder
                                 includes files which indicate the
                                 wrong and corrected uplink frequency
                                 and their corresponding files.


      Files in the CALIB Directory
      ----------------------------

      Files in the CALIB directory are:

      Calibration data files have in principle the same structure as
      normal data files. But they do not contain scientific data but
      rather reflect the behaviour of the system. These kind of data
      is typically recorded at New Norcia once for every tracking
      before the real measurement took place. For example: range
      calibration data contain the equipment propagation delay
      measurements before the tracking pass.

      Note: If the uplink frequency in one of the .RAW files was
      identified as wrong the folder UPLINK_FREQ_CORRECT will be
      generated. It tells the user which files were affected and where
      to find the corrected Level 2 data files.


      Closed loop IFMS Calib data level 1A:
      -------------------------------------

      These Level 1A data are incoming raw tracking data files
      obtained from ESA IFMS. All incoming data files will be renamed
      after the file naming convention format defined in section 5.1
      of the RSI File Naming Convention document [RSIFNC2004] and
      get a minimal detached label file .LBL. The original file name
      of the incoming tracking data files will be stored in the
      according label file as SOURCE_PRODUCT_ID. These files have the
      file extension .RAW.


      Closed loop IFMS Calib data level 1B:
      -------------------------------------

      IFMS Calib level 1B files are processed from level 1A (raw
      tracking data) into an edited ASCII formatted file.
      Three files are generated for each ESA IFMS Level 1A data file:
            Level 1B IFMS data file (extension .TAB)
            Level 1B IFMS configuration file (extension .CFG)
            Level 1B IFMS label file (extension .LBL)
      The label file contains the description of the .TAB as well as
      of the .CFG file.


      DSN METEO Files (MET directory)
      -------------------------------
        DSN METEO files were produced by the Tracking System
        Analytic Calibration (TSAC) Group at JPL.  Files give weather
        calibration information for DSN complexes. These are ASCII
        files of variable length records.  Each record is delimited
        by an ASCII line-feed  (ASCII 10). METEO files were
        typically released weekly and contain all weather data for the
        complex since 1 January.  Each METEO file is accompanied by a
        PDS label. The files grow at the rate of approximately 90 kB
        per month.

       DSN Ionosphere Calibration Files (ION Directory)
       ------------------------------------------------
       Ionosphere Calibration files were produced by the Tracking
       System Analytic Calibration (TSAC) Group at JPL. They docu-
       mented and predicted Earth ionospheric conditions. Global
       Ionosphere Map (GIM) software created daily maps from Global
       Positioning System (GPS) data. Each day, a final map was
       created for the UT day three days previously and a preliminary
       map was created for the UT day immediately before.
       Also created were predict maps a couple times a week by
       averaging recent 'normal' days. Then the software evaluated the
       maps at the spacecraft line-of-sight and fitted the results to
       a normalized polynomial versus time over each spacecraft pass.
       This was done for all three modes: final, preliminary, and
       predict. Then the software selected the best available cali-
       bration for each pass (in priority order final > preliminary >
       predict).  An operator ran a plotting program to view all of
       the calibrations and overrode the default selections where
       desired. The mapping technique is described by
       [MANNUCCIETAL1998].

       They are ASCII files of variable length records. Each record is
       delimited by an ASCII carriage-return line-feed pair 
       (ASCII 13 followed by ASCII 10). ION files were usually
       released at one week intervals to cover a single month; only
       final files covering a full month are included in this archive.
       Each ION file is accompanied by a PDS minimal label. Typical
       file sizes are approximately 50 kB.

        Troposphere Calibration Files (TRO Directory)
        ---------------------------------------------
        Troposphere Calibration files were produced by the Tracking
        System Analytic Calibration (TSAC) Group at JPL. They docu-
        mented and predicted Earth tropospheric conditions and were
        based on measurements made using Global Positioning System
        (GPS) satellites. These are ASCII files of variable length
        records. Each record is delimited by an ASCII line-feed 
        (ASCII 10).

        Surface Reflection Filter Files (SRF Directory)
        -----------------------------------------------
        SRF files contain power spectra derived from noise measure-
        ments when the radio system was stable and there were no
        spacecraft signals in the passband. SRF's were derived sepa-
        rately for each receiver channel; but the fact that the
        spectral characteristics of each receiver depended almost
        entirely on digital signal processing meant that there was
        little practical difference among channels when sampling rates
        (output bandwidths) were the same and the SRF's were inter-
        changeable. SRF's were ASCII PDS SPECTRUM objects with
        attached labels.

        System Temperature Calibration Files (BCAL directory)
        -----------------------------------------------------
        This table contains system temperature calibration results
        from Rosetta (RO) bistatic radar experiments. For each
        receiver channel the table includes the best estimate of
        system temperature with the antenna pointed to zenith (either
        pre- or post-cal, or a combination of both), the associated
        noise diode temperature, and the system temperature at the
        mid-point of the bistatic (surface) observation.
        In general there is one set of four rows for each experiment -
        one for each receiver channel (X-band and S-band, right- and
        left-circular polarization). The table is cumulative, growing
        by four rows for each new observation.



Browse Files (BROWSE Directory)
===============================
        Browse files may be composite PostScript files summarizing
        quick-look processing of raw RSR data. In that case each file
        has a name: rggttttL1A_BRO_yydddhhmm_00.AUX. Each file has a
        JPEG version with the same file name but extension .JPG. Both
        files are accompanied by a single detached label of the same
        file name but extension .LBL. Each PostScript file is sized to
        fit on a single 8-1/2x11 inch page. Each landscape format page
        includes four panels showing a histogram of raw data (12-bit)
        samples (upper left), one-minute average power spectra derived
        from the raw samples (upper right), one-second averages of raw
        sample power versus time (lower left), and an extract of the
        first few lines of the source RSR PDS label (lower right).
        BRO files may be helpful in quickly scanning data to determine
        which files are suitable for closer study.

        IFMS Browse plot files are only available as JPEG files.
        These plots are generated in order to check data quality of
        IFMS Level 2 closed-loop data. The name of the files are the
        same like the Level 2 data files except for the data type
        identifier which is set as sss=B1X,B1S,B2X,B2S if the source
        of the plots is a Doppler 1 X-Band, Doppler 1 S-Band, Doppler
        2 X-Band or Doppler 2 S-Band file, and the extension will be
        .JPG.


Geometry information - Coordinate System
========================================

   The geometry items SC_SUN_POSITION_VECTOR, SC_TARGET_POSITION_
   VECTOR and SC_TARGET_VELOCITY_VECTOR provided in the label of the
   data products are calculated from the spacecraft to the sun center
   expressed in J2000 reference frame, corrected for light time and
   stellar abberation.

   SUB_SPACECRAFT_LATITUDE, SUB_SPACECRAFT_LONGITUDE are given in the
   PLANETOCENTRIC coordinate system. These parameters are computed
   for the time given in POSITION_TIME. Distances are given in km,
   angles in degrees.

   More information can be found in the geometry_index file under
   INDEX/. Documentation is available in the RSI document folder.


Ancillary Data
==============
      An extensive set of ancillary files is needed for proper
      analysis and interpretation of the radio data. These are
      organized in parallel directories and stored approximately
      chronologically. When a file type is not represented on an
      electronic volume, the corresponding directory has been omitted.

      Files in the EXTRAS/ANCILLARY Directory
      ---------------------------------------

      Files in the EXTRAS/ANCILLARY directory are:

      ESOC:   Relevant DDS files to describe the observation geometry
      SPICE:  Relevant SPICE Kernels to describe the observation geo-
              metry
      UNI_BW: Relevant PREDICT files from the Uni BW Munich
      RSI:    Level 2 processing log files
      SUE:    Ancillary Spice Kernels coming coming from NAIF
       |-SPICE:
              Spice Kernels were produced by the RO Flight Dynamics
              Team, converted to IEEE binary format, and then distri-
              buted by the JPL Navigation and Ancillary Information
              Facility (NAIF). For more information on NAIF and SPICE
              see http://pds-naif.jpl.nasa.gov/

             The original Spice Kernels were merged with the JPL DE405
             planetary ephemeris and the ephemeredes of Phobos and
             Deimos for the same time interval.
      DSN:    Ancillary files provided by Deep Space Network
       |-EOP: Earth Orientation Parameter Files
       |      Earth Orientation Parameter files were produced by the
       |      Time and Earth Motion Precision Observation (TEMPO)
       |      Group at JPL. They documented and predicted Earth rota-
       |      tion (rate and axis). These are ASCII files of variable
       |      length records. Each record is delimited by an ASCII
       |      line-feed  (ASCII 10).
       |      There are both 'long' and 'short' versions. The long
       |      file covered past motion since about 1962 and a predic-
       |      tion for about three months into the future; these files
       |      have typical sizes of 1 MB.
       |      The short file covered the most recent nine months of
       |      past motion and a prediction for three months into the
       |      future; these files are typically 30 kB. Each EOP file
       |      is accompanied by a PDS minimal label.
       |
       |-OPT: Orbit Propagation and Timing Geometry File
       |      Orbit Propagation and Time Generation files contain
       |      estimates of event timing (e.g., equator crossings) that
       |      depend on precise knowledge of the spacecraft orbit.
       |      These are ASCII files of variable length records. Each
       |      record is delimited by an ASCII carriage-return 
       |      (ASCII 13) line-feed  (ASCII 10) pair. File names
       |      have the form ydddeeeC.OPT where the file name compo-
       |      nents are the same as for BCK files (above).
       |      Each OPT file is accompanied by a PDS minimal label with
       |      file name ydddeeeC.LBL. Typical files are based on
       |      reconstructed spacecraft trajectories, cover a month of
       |      operation, and have sizes less than 500 kB.
       |
       |-LIT: Light Time File
       |      Light Time files give radio propagation time from the
       |      spacecraft to Earth as a function of time. These are
       |      ASCII files of fixed length records. Each record is
       |      delimited by an ASCII carriage-return line-feed pair.
       |      File names have the form  ydddeeeC.LIT  where the file
       |      name components are the same as for DKF files.  An LIT
       |      file may cover more than 365 days; so eee may be a year
       |      or more after yddd. Each LIT file is accompanied by a
       |      PDS label. Typical file sizes are less than 1 MB.



Software
========
      Software for parsing, reducing, and analyzing data such as
      these has been developed at University of Cologne and Stanford
      University.
      Because such software must usually operate at the bit-level and
      is written for a narrow range of platforms, it is not suitable
      for general distribution. No software is included with this
      archival data set.



Documents
=========

     The DOCUMENT directory contains the files that provide documen-
     tation and supplementary information to assist in understanding
     and using the data products on the volume.

The files evolved as the mission progressed; users should refer to the
files on the most recent (highest numbered) RSI Volume-ID for the
most up-to-date information.

The below mentioned documents represent the maximum of available docu-
ments, but need not to be present for every measurement. For IFMS
(NNO) measurements, please refer mainly to RSI_DOC, for DSN measure-
ments to DSN_DOC.

Structure of the DOCUMENT directory:

DOCUMENT
   |
   |- DOCINFO.TXT                          Specifies the content of
   |                                       the document directory
   |
   |- RSI_DOC
   |     |
   |     |- M32ESOCL1B_RCL_021202_00.PDF   Group delay stability
   |     |                                 specification and
   |     |                                 measurements at New Norcia.
   |     |
   |     |- M32ESOCL1B_RCL_021202_00.ASC   Group delay stability
   |     |                                 specification and
   |     |                                 measurements at New Norcia.
   |     |
   |     |- M32ESOCL1B_RCL_030522_00.PDF   Range calibrations at New
   |     |                                 Norcia and Kourou.
   |     |
   |     |- M32ESOCL1B_RCL_030522_00.ASC   Range calibrations at New
   |     |                                 Norcia and Kourou.
   |     |
   |     |- M32UNBWL1B_RCL_030801_00.PDF   Transponder group
   |     |                                 velocities (in german).
   |     |
   |     |- M32UNBWL1B_RCL_030801_00.ASC   Transponder group
   |     |                                 velocities (in english,
   |     |                                 translated).
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_IS_3079.PDF        RSI Data Archive Plan.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_IS_3079.ASC        RSI Data Archive Plan.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_IS_3087.PDF        RSI File Naming Convention.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_IS_3087.ASC        RSI File Naming Convention.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_IS_3087_APP_A.ASC  RSI File Naming Convention
   |     |                                 Appendix A: Example PDS
   |     |                                 labels.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_MA_3081.PDF        RSI User Manual.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_OPS_LOGBOOK_04.PDF         Status of all planned radio
   |     |                                 science operations in year
   |     |                                 2004 (later 05, 06, ...).
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_LI_3116.PDF        List of RSI Team members.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3118.PDF        IFMS Doppler Processing
   |     |                                 Software Documentation:
   |     |                                 Level 1a to Level 2.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3119.PDF        IFMS Ranging Processing
   |     |                                 Software Documentation:
   |     |                                 Level 1a to Level 2.
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3121.PDF        Radio Science  Predicted
   |     |                                 and Reconstructed Orbit and
   |     |                                 Planetary Constellation
   |     |                                 Data: Specifications
   |     |
   |     |- ROS_RSI_IGM_DS_3127.PDF        ODF Processing and
   |     |                                 Calibration Software: Level
   |     |                                 1a to Level 1b Software
   |     |                                 Design Specifications.
   |
   |- ESA_DOC
   |     |
   |     |- IFMS_OCCFTP.PDF                Documentation of IFMS data
   |     |                                 format.
   |     |
   |     |- RO_ESC_ID_5003_FDSICD.PDF      File format description of
   |     |                                 ESOC Flight Dynamics files
   |     |                                 (ancillary files).
   |     |
   |     |- RO_ESC_IF_5003_APPENDIX_C.PDF  Documentation of DDS
   |     |                                 configuration.
   |     |
   |     |- RO_ESC_IF_5003_APPENDIX_I.PDF  Definition of XML-schema
   |     |                                 for the data delivery
   |     |                                 interface.
   |     |
   |     |- RO_ESC_IF_5003_APPENDIX_H.PDF  Description of content of
   |     |                                 ESOC Flight Dynamics files
   |     |                                 (ancillary files).
   |     |
   |     |- RO_ESC_IF_5003.PDF             Data delivery interface
   |     |                                 document.
   |     |
   |     |- SOP_RSSD_TN_010.pdf            Planetary Science Data
   |     |                                 Archive Technical Note
   |     |                                 Geometry and Position
   |     |                                 Information.
   |     |
   |     |- RO_EST_TN_3372.PDF             Rosetta Archive Convention.
   |     |
   |     |- HGA_CALA.ASC                   High Gain antenna
   |     |                                 calibration (optional).
   |     |
   |     |- HGA_SBDA.PDF                   S-band antenna patterns
   |     |                                 (optional).
   |     |
   |     |- HGA_XBDA.PDF                   X-band antenna patterns
   |                                       (optional).
   |
   |- DSN_DOC
   |     |
   |     |- DSN_WEA_FORMAT_TRK_2_24.PDF    Specification of DSN
   |     |                                 weather file.
   |     |
   |     |- DSN_ODF_TRK-2_18.PDF           Documentation of
   |     |                                 Tracking System Interfaces
   |     |                                 and Orbit Data File
   |     |                                 Interface.
   |     |
   |     |- DSN_MEDIA_CAL_TRK_2_23.PDF     Specifiaction of DSN media
   |     |                                 calibration data.
   |     |
   |     |- JPL_D_16765_RSR.PDF            Documentation of RSR data
   |     |                                 format.
   |     |
   |     |- JPEG                           Zip-folder with 4 sets of
   |     |                                 24 jpeg-files, each from a
   |     |                                 different receiver, showing
   |     |                                 circularly polarized
   |     |                                 received power spectra
   |     |                                 averaged over 60 seconds.
   |     |                                 FILENAME: Rydddbca.jpg with
   |     |                                 y:year, ddd:doy, b:X- or
   |     |                                 S-band, c: Left or
   |     |                                 Right-Hand circulation,
   |     |                                 a:alphabetic numbering for
   |     |                                 each plot of 60s
   |     |                                 (optional).
   |     |
   |     |- DSN_DESIGN_HB.ASC              Technical information of
   |     |                                 current and near future
   |     |                                 configurations of NASA DSN
   |     |                                 (ASCII version).
   |     |
   |     |- DSN_DESIGN_HB.PDF              Technical information of
   |     |                                 current and near future
   |     |                                 configurations of NASA DSN
   |     |                                 (PDF version).
   |     |
   |     |- LIT_SIS.HTM                    Softaware interface
   |     |                                 specification Light time
   |     |                                 file.
   |     |- M00DSN0L1A_DKF_yydddhhmm_vv.TXT (optional)
   |     |                                 DSN Keyword File derived
   |     |                                 from SOE file and models of
   |     |                                 activities supported by the
   |     |                                 DSN.
   |     |
   |     |- M00DSN0L1A_SOE_yydddhhmm_vv.TXT (optional)
   |     |                                 Sequence of Events file.
   |     |
   |     |- MggDSN0L1A_NMC__yydddhhmm_vv.TXT (optional)
   |     |                                 Network Monitor and Control
   |     |                                 Logfile.
   |     |
   |     |- MEDIASIS.HTM                   Media calibration data:
   |     |                                 formats and contents.
   |     |
   |     |- MON0158.ASC/.DOC/.PDF          (optional)
   |     |                                 Definition of format and
   |     |                                 distribution of the
   |     |                                 real-time, mission monitor
   |     |                                 data.
   |     |
   |     |- NMC_SIS.TXT                    Contents of network monitor
   |     |                                 and control log.
   |     |
   |     |- OPTG_SIS.TXT                   Software Interface
   |     |                                 Specification for the Orbit
   |     |                                 Propagation and Timing
   |     |                                 Geometry (OPTG) file.
   |     |
   |     |- SRX.TXT                        (optional)
   |     |                                 Software Interface
   |     |                                 Specification for Surface
   |     |                                 Reflection investigation
   |     |                                 files.
   |     |
   |     |- TNF_SIS.TXT                    Deep space mission system
   |     |                                 external interface
   |     |                                 specification.
   |     |
   |     |- TRK_2_21.TXT                   Software interface
   |     |                                 specification.



The documents are either in PDF-Format or are text files in ASCII with
variable length of characters per line. Each line is delimited with a
carriage-return (ASCII 13) line-feed (ASCII 10) pair.



Media/Format
============
      The archival data is copied to electronic media.
DATA_SET_RELEASE_DATE 2016-12-06T00:00:00.000Z
START_TIME 2014-09-13T06:22:02.000Z
STOP_TIME 2014-09-13T05:49:53.500Z
MISSION_NAME INTERNATIONAL ROSETTA MISSION
MISSION_START_DATE 1995-03-01T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_STOP_DATE N/A (ongoing)
TARGET_NAME 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO 1 (1969 R1)
TARGET_TYPE COMET
INSTRUMENT_HOST_ID RO
INSTRUMENT_NAME ROSETTA RADIO SCIENCE INVESTIGATION
INSTRUMENT_ID RSI
INSTRUMENT_TYPE RADIO SCIENCE
NODE_NAME Small Bodies
ARCHIVE_STATUS IN LIEN RESOLUTION
CONFIDENCE_LEVEL_NOTE
Overview
========
      Data in this archival data set have been processed as part of
      health monitoring activities of the RSI Radio Science Team.
      In general, this is a good data set.



Review
======
      This archival data set was reviewed by the RSI Radio Science
      Team prior to submission to the Planetary Science Archive (PSA).

      Prior to creation of the final version of the archival data
      set, key elements of the archive were distributed for
      preliminary review.  These included electronic versions of
      example PDS labels, CATALOG files, and Software Interface
      Specifications.  These materials were distributed to PDS
      personnel, the experiment investigator, and others,
      as appropriate.


Data Coverage and Quality
=========================
      The table below lists the individual volumes created to date and
      (very briefly) their respective contents.


Radio Science Validation Process
--------------------------------
      Several Quick-Look-plots of the retrieved data are generated
      during processing to Level 2. These plots are investigated to
      validate the measurement. Possible decisions are then to deliver
      the data to the official PSA Archive, to archive the data only
      internally or regard the measurement as failed.
      The following section gives a short description of the
      Quick-Look-Plots and their meaning for the validation process.
      The plots can be found in the BROWSE folder. For more details
      refer to BROWINFO.TXT, also located in this folder. For the
      respective terms refer to the document
      MEX-MRS-IGM-DS-3035/ROS-RSI-IGM-DS-3118/VEX-VRA-IGM-IS-3011
      (Doppler Processing and Calibration Software) in the DOCUMENT
      folder of this dataset.

Residuals
---------
      The residual (frequencyobserved - frequencypredicted) should
      fluctuate around 0 Hz with a maximum fluctuation range of
      approximately 0.1 HZ. Steps, peaks or a gradient in the residual
      should be investigated to decide if the data can be used. But it
      depends on the individual measurement, if the data set is
      severely influenced by such data problems, and on the
      experienced user if he accepts the data. The time measuring
      device at the IFMS ground station may produce so-called
      cycle-slips which can be seen in the observed frequency. This
      results in huge peaks in the residuals and the data can not be
      used, if the number of cycle-slips is too large.

AGC
---
      The noise level of the data and the associated signal level
      (AGC) is dependent on the distance between the spacecraft and
      the Earth. For X-Band we usually have values of about
      -50/-70 dBm, for S-Band of about -70/-80 dBm. The fluctuation
      range should not exceed 1 dBm. If there is a high noise-level
      or the signal level is extremely low, the ground station
      receiver might have been unlocked or the spacecraft operated
      in a non-coherent mode. No gradient or peaks should be visible
      in the data. Steps can be seen if telemetry is switched on/off,
      but this is not a sign for a measurement error.

Differential Doppler
--------------------
      F_s - (3/11)*F_x, where F_s and F_x are the received signal
      frequencies at S- and X-bands, respectively. The data should
      fluctuate around 0 Hz with a maximum fluctuation range of 0.1
      Hz, depending on the distance between spacecraft and Earth. The
      Differential Doppler is important in solar corona sounding
      measurements especially.

Calibration
-----------
      Occultation

      Calibration is done for occultation measurements using a
      Klobuchar model for the Earth ionosphere. Besides, Meteo-files
      derived at the groundstation are used for the tropospheric
      correction. The calibration data should show a smooth curve with
      small values without any steps.

      Gravity

      Until the begin of 2007, the calibration of gravity measurements
      is done using the Differential Doppler data. This calibration
      step corrects the effects induced by the interplanetary and
      planetary plasma. This can only be done if two downlink
      frequencies have been recorded. The Meteo-files derived at the
      groundstation are used for the tropospheric correction. If the
      Differential Doppler noise is too high, Earth ionosphere
      calibration is done via the Klobuchar-Coefficients. The
      calibration data should then show a smooth curve of small values
      without any steps. If the Differential Doppler is used, the high
      frequency plasma noise superposes the calibration curve. The
      overall appearance depends on the observation geometry. Since
      the begin of 2007, calibration is always done using the
      Klobuchar model for the Earth ionosphere. The Meteo-files,
      derived at the groundstation are used for the tropospheric
      correction. The calibration data should show a smooth curve
      without steps.

Solar Conjunction
-----------------
      Calibration is done for Solar Conjunction measurements with
      Klobuchar-Coefficients for the Earth Ionosphere. The Meteo-files
      derived at the groundstation are used for the tropospheric
      correction. The calibration data should show a smooth curve with
      small values without any steps.

Other Notes
-----------
      Most notably it was discovered that the incoming Doppler data
      from ESA and thus level 1A and level 1B Doppler data may contain
      a wrong uplink frequency. This problem was identified during
      processing and corrected for level 2 data. If this problem
      occurred the folder UPLINK_FREQ_CORRECT will be generated in the
      CALIB directory containing information which raw files were
      effected and where to find the corrected data.

      Please note, that for the New Norcia ground station (NNO) the
      ESA station number is 74 wheras the DSN station number is 32.
      This number is used in the labels and most documents. Some ESA
      documents and especially orbit prediction files may use the
      ESA station number.
      Because of some problems with documentation on the U.S. side,
      the navigation people are using 83 for Cebreros rather than 62,
      the official station id; so you may see either number depending
      on the source of the file.


      On 15.8.2007 the PI of Radio Science moved to another institute.
      Old institute: Institut fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie an der
                     Universitaet zu Koeln.
      New instiute: Rheinisches Institut fuer Umweltforschung,
                    Abteilung Planetenforschung


      Quality of data was affected by anomalous conditions.

      Examples include:

      Open-Loop Data Anomalies
      ------------------------



      Closed-Loop Data Anomalies
      --------------------------
      RORSI_0291: IFMS1 data longer than other IFMS data due to
                   automatic procedure test; IFMS1 partly unlocked
                   between 07:00:58 and 07:06:11; peak in calibration
                   due to Klobuchar plasma calibration (switch between
                   day/night calibration at groundstation).






Limitations
===========

      The limitations in this data set follow from the quality of
      the execution, which is described above under Data Coverage
      and Quality.

ACRONYMS
========
AAS             Atmosphere Analysis Software
AGC             Automatic Gain Control
AMMOS           Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System
ATDF            Archival Tracking Data Files
ADC             Analog to Digital Converter
BWG             Beam Wave Guide ground station (DSN)
CALI            calibration file
CHDO            Compressed Header Data Object
CVP             Commissioning
DDS             Data Distribution System
DSMS            Deep Space Mission System

DSN             Deep Space Network
ESA             European Space Agency
ENT/EXT         Extended Mission
ESOC            European Space Operations Centre
G/S             Ground Station
HEF             High Efficiency ground station (DSN)
IFMS            Intermediate Frequency Modulation System
JPL             Jet Propulsion Laboratory
MEX             Mars Express
MGS             Mars Global Surveyor
NEA             NEAR
NNO             New Norcia Station (Perth)
ODF             Orbit Data File

ODR             Original Data Record
PDS             Planetary Data System
PRM             Prime Mission
RO              Rosetta Orbiter
RSI             Radio Science Investigation
RSR             Radio Science Receiver
S/C             Spacecraft
SFDU            Standard Formatted Data Unit
TNF             Tracking and Navigation File
ULS             Ulysses
UniBw           Universitaet der Bundeswehr in Muenchen
CITATION_DESCRIPTION M. Paetzold, ROSETTA-ORBITER 67P RSI 1/2/3 PRELANDING 0291 V1.0, RO-C-RSI-1/2/3-PRL-0291-V1.0, ESA Planetary Science Archive and NASA Planetary Data System, 2016.
ABSTRACT_TEXT This is a Rosetta Radio Science data set, collected during the PRELANDING phase 2014-01-21 to 2014-11-18. It is a Global Gravity measurement at the comet 67P and covers the time 2014-09-13T06:22:02.000 to 2014-09-13T17:49:53.500.
PRODUCER_FULL_NAME MARTIN PAETZOLD
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