Data Set Information
DATA_SET_TERSE_DESCRIPTION Reflectance-calibrated near-IR spectral image data acquired from Nov 2008 through Aug 2009 by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper the Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon.
Data Set Overview                                                           
    This data set contains version 1.0 of the Level 2 Archive for             
    the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument (M3).  It is a collection of        
    reflectance-calibrated and pixel-located data products acquired           
    during from November 2008 through May 2009 by M3 during the               
    Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon.  The data were collected while         
    the instrument was operated in global or targeted mode.                   
    The documentation in the DOCUMENT directory provides detailed             
    information about the data files and their format and content.            
    A M3 Level 2 Data Product consists of pixel-located, resampled,           
    calibrated data as reflectance (unitless) that make up one observation    
    tagged by a unique file name.  The data in one Level 2 product represent  
    a consistent instrument configuration (frame rate, pixel binning). There  
    is a single multiple-band reflectance image stored in one file (BINARY;   
    *_RFL.IMG) with a detached PDS label (ASCII; suffix *_L2.LBL), and a      
    detached header file (ASCII; suffix *_RFL.HDR).  A Level 2 product also   
    includes a  supplemental file (BINARY; *_SUP.IMG) that contains three     
    images to assist analysis:                                                
      1) The 1489-nm reflectance image photometrically corrected to a sphere  
         (retaining topographic illumination),                                
      2) A map of the derived temperatures used for thermal correction, and   
      3) The longest wavelength band (number 84 for global or 253 for         
         target) of the Level 1B radiance image (*RDN.IMG) that is            
         scientifically useful; this band contains both reflected solar and   
         thermal emitted components and is highly sensitive to local          
    For scientific results from M3 see Pieters, et al. (2009b)                
    [PIETERSETAL2009B], Pieters, et al. (2009c) [PIETERSETAL2009C], Besse,    
    et al. (2011) [BESSEETAL2011], Besse, et al. (2012) [BESSEETAL2012],      
    Boardman, et al. (2011) [BOARDMANETAL2011], Buratti, et al. (2011)        
    [BURATTIETAL2011], Cheek, et al. (2011) [CHEEKETAL2011], Clark, et al.    
    (2011) [CLARKETAL2011], Clark, et al. (2012) [CLARKETAL2012], Hicks, et   
    al. (2011) [HICKSETAL2011], Green, et al. (2011) [GREENETAL2011],         
    Isaacson, et al. (2011) [ISAACSONETAL2011], Klima, et al. (2011)          
    [KLIMAETAL2011], Kramer, et al. (2011a) [KRAMERETAL2011A], Kramer, et     
    al. (2011b) [KRAMERETAL2011B] McCord, et al. (2011) [MCCORDETAL2011],     
    Mustard, et al. (2011) [MUSTARDETAL2011], Nettles, et al. (2011)          
    [NETTLESETAL2011], Pieters, et al. (2011) [PIETERSETAL2011], Staid, et    
    al. (2011) [STAIDETAL2011], Thaisen, et al. (2011) [THAISENETAL2011],     
    and Whitten, et al. (2011) [WHITTENETAL2011].                             
    M3 Level 2 processing involves converting the at-sensor radiance data     
    from Level 1 to 'reflectance' at an incidence angle (i) of 30 degrees     
    and an emission angle (e) of 0 degrees.  Here we define 'reflectance' as  
    radiance factor (RADF; Hapke, (1993), p. 262, Eq. 10.5 [HAPKE1993])       
    consistent with Level 2 data from SELENE Spectral Profiler (Yokota, et    
    al. (2011) [YOKOTAETAL2011]).  The process includes a limb-darkening      
    based photometric function to correct all M3 data to the reference i=30   
    degrees, e=0 degrees geometry using normalization factors derived from    
    highland units.  M3 reflectances are thus 'normalized' as if they were    
    all measured at i=30 degrees, e=0 degrees.                                
    Level 2 processing consists the following sequential operations:          
      1)  Solar Irradiance Correction,                                        
      2)  Statistical Polishing,                                              
      3)  Thermal Removal,                                                    
      4)  Photometric Correction,                                             
      5)  Ground Truth Correction** (optional), and                           
      6)  Flag degraded channels.                                             
      **  The Ground Truth Correction step was intentially turned off         
          in the Level 2 pipeline and thus the data in this archive           
          have NOT been corrected to ground truth.                            
    For a detailed description of each operation, including how to            
    independently apply the Ground Truth Correction, please see the M3        
    Data Product Software Interface Specification, DPSIS.PDF, located in      
    the DOCUMENT directory.  Please note that version 3.0 of the Level 1B     
    radiance data products archived in the PDS data set                       
    CH1-ORB-L-M3-4-L1B-RADIANCE-V3.0 were used as input to this Level 2       
    Calibration files used by the Level 2 process are located in the CALIB    
    directory.  It includes tables of multiplicative factors for the ground   
    truth correction for researchers to apply to the Level 2 data as needed.  
    See the M3 Data Product Software Interface Specification, DPSIS.PDF,      
    located in the DOCUMENT directory.                                        
    References used to develop the Level 2 process include Anderson, et al.   
    (2000) [ANDERSONETAL2000], Hapke, (1993) [HAPKE1993], Kurucz, et al.      
    (1995) [KURUCZ1995], Nobel, et al. (2006) [NOBLEETAL2006], and Yokota,    
    et al. (2011) [YOKOTAETAL2011].                                           
    The DATA directory contains a separate subdirectory based on the start    
    and end times of a 13-week imaging period.  Each imaging period           
    subdirectory is further divided into subdirectories for each month of an  
    Optical Period (OP).  Each OP month subdirectory is further divided       
    based on the type of data product (e.g., Level 2 for this archive).       
    For a detailed description of reflectance products located in the DATA    
    directory, please see the M3 Data Product Software Interface              
    Specification, DPSIS.PDF, located in the DOCUMENT directory.              
  Coordinate System                                                           
    The coordinate system used is the new 'Standardized Lunar Coordinate      
    System for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter' (LRO Working Group, 2007).   
    This new lunar coordinate system is being adopted as an international     
    standard and will greatly facilitate the direct integration of data from  
    multiple missions and among international partners.  The coordinate       
    system is based on planetocentric coordinates in the Mean Earth/Polar     
    Axis (ME) reference frame.  The z-axis is the mean axis of rotation with  
    the positive direction pointing north.  The x-axis is the intersection    
    of the Equator and Prime Meridian, as defined by the mean Earth           
    direction.  The y-axis completes the frame in a right-handed sense and    
    points in the direction of +90 degrees longitude.  Latitude ranges from   
    +90 to -90 form the North Pole to the South Pole. Longitude will be       
    reported as 0 to 360 degrees increasing to the East. For a detailed       
    description, see the M3 Data Product Software Interface Specification,    
    DPSIS.PDF, located in the DOCUMENT directory.                             
    The M3 team uses the commercial software packages ENVI and IDL to         
    display and analyze M3 data products.  ENVI and IDL are distributed by    
    ITT Visual Information Solutions and are available at                  M3 data products can also be read by the         
    commercial package ACT-REACT which from Applied Coherent Technology       
    Corporation at  In addition,   
    the free PDS NASAView software package can also be used for basic image   
    displaying of M3 L2 data products.  It is available at:                                              
    Nevertheless, the data are not in a proprietary format and are arranged   
    as simply and as openly as possible.  The provision of both PDS labels    
    and ENVI headers guarantee the data will be readily accessible to the     
    widest possible audience.                                                 
    The M3 archive will be made available online via Web and FTP servers.     
    This will be the primary means of distribution.  The M3 Level 2 archive   
    is organized as one data set and stored electronically as a single        
    volume for online access via the World Wide Web and FTP.
DATA_SET_RELEASE_DATE 2011-11-30T00:00:00.000Z
START_TIME 2008-11-18T10:26:04.000Z
STOP_TIME 2009-08-16T05:25:55.000Z
MISSION_START_DATE 2008-10-22T12:00:00.000Z
MISSION_STOP_DATE 2009-08-28T12:00:00.000Z
Confidence Level Overview                                                   
    The data files in this data set were reviewed internally by the M3        
   Prior to the creation of this archival data set, a sample that included    
   several data products, PDS labels, catalog and indexfiles, and             
   documentation such as the M3 Data Product Software Interface               
   Specification passed a peer review held by PDS Imaging Node in May 2011.   
   Liens placed by the peer reviewers have been resolved in this archival     
   data set.                                                                  
  Data Coverage and Quality                                                   
    The M3 image acquisition time is divided into peak periods or Optical     
    Periods (OP) when lighting is optimal for observation.  The Optical       
    Periods occur twice a year and are understood to have two central months  
    of optimal illumination (solar beta angles -30 deg to +30 deg) with two   
    optional two-week wing periods (solar beta angles +/-30 deg to +/-45      
    deg) on either side of the optimal 2 months (thus, one Optical Period     
    equals 13 weeks).  Each 13 week optical period is followed by a 13-week   
    hiatus.  The original instrument operations plan included the             
    acquisition of the entire surface of the Moon in low-resolution Global    
    Mode during the first Optical Period (OP1) while OP2, OP3, OP4 were       
    reserved for high resolution Target Mode data acquisition.                
    However, the mission was cut short, just before the halfway point, in     
    August, 2009 when the spacecraft ceased operations. Despite the           
    abbreviated mission and numerous technical and scientific challenges      
    during the flight, M3 was able to cover more than 95% of the Moon in      
    Global Mode.  Only minimal high-resolution Target Mode images were        
    acquired, as these were to be the focus of the second half of the         
    mission.  The technical challenges encountered during the mission have    
    complicated the data processing and calibration.  These challenges        
    include thermal issues, loss of the spacecraft star trackers and a        
    raising of the orbit from 100 km to 200 km on May 19, 2009.  Details of   
    these challenges are discussed in the M3 Data Product Software Interface  
    Specification, DPSIS.PDF, located in the DOCUMENT directory.              
    Nonetheless, the data products in this data set contain optimal           
    calibration and characterization.                                         
    M3 operations were sustained for two Optical Periods which are described  
    in the M3 Data Product Software Interface Specification in the DOCUMENT   
    directory. For more detailed information regarding the spacecraft         
    operation schedule, please see the MISSION.CAT.                           
CITATION_DESCRIPTION Malaret, E., P. Guasqui, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, S. Besse, R. Clark, and P. Isaacson, CH1-ORB MOON M3 4 L2 REFLECTANCE NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGES V1.0, CH1-ORB-L-M3-4-L2-REFLECTANCE-V1.0, NASA Planetary Data System, 2011.
ABSTRACT_TEXT This dataset contains pixel located, reflectance-calibrated, near-IR spectral image data acquired from November 2008 through August 2009 by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument during the Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon.
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