Citing PDS4 Data

When using data which has been provided by PDS in publications and research, we encourage you to cite PDS as the data source.

If you need further guidance for citing a data source, please contact the PDS Operator at

Importance of Citing Data

Proper documentation of data sources is important in scientific research. Source checks are one of several methods for assessing the soundness of analyses and for extending the work reported. Should there be questions about methods or conclusions, unambiguous source information simplifies replication (and defense) of the initial report.

Citing PDS4 Data Products

Citation information can be found in the <Citation_Information> class in PDS4 XML labels. This class contains authorship and publication information for use in citing the product and its contents. The class is also for registering the product in the PDS4 Registry. It is required in all collection, bundle, and individual document products.

   <author_list>L.Huber, etal</author_list>
       This is the document collection for the ladee_ldex bundle.
       This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument
       aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. These
       data are generated by dust impacts on the LDEX detector. Both reduced and calibrated data
       are included in this bundle.

A Citation for a PDS Product is derived from the citation metadata and associated LIDVID.

Huber, L., etal, Document Collection for the LADEE LDEX detector, urn:nasa:pds:ladee_ldex:document, NASA Planetary Data System, 2014.

PDS recently adopted the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to cite PDS4 Products. For information on how to obtain a DOI, refer to DOI FAQs. Once you have a DOI for a Product, it can be resolved at:

An example Citation of a PDS4 Bundle Product with DOI:

L.Huber. (2014). LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data Bundle (Version 4). PDS Planetary Atmospheres Node (ATMOS).

An example Citation of a PDS4 Collection Product with DOI:

Jakosky, B., & Luhmann, J. (2017). MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument Data Return Files (DRF) Data Collection (Version 4) [Data set]. PDS Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node.

Identifying Specific PDS4 Data Products

PDS provides a persistent identifier for every product in PDS4 called a logical identifier ("LID"). The LID is uniquely associated with the set of all versions of a product. A LIDVID uniquely identifies a single versioned instanced of a product LID. LIDVIDs are registered in the PDS4 registry services as a way to track and discover data products.

When you are working on a publication or presentation and need to identify particular PDS4 products that were used, it is recommended that you cite the resolvable identifiers (e.g., logical identifier as LID or LIDVID) so that users can easily locate the product(s).


The above ID is included in the PDS4 XML label either as a LID or a LIDVID.

Acknowledging and Citing PDS4 Data

When referencing PDS data in publications or presentations, please provide an acknowledgment so that proper credit can be extended to NASA, its missions, science data providers, and/or their partners.

Examples are provided below for general acknowledgments, data set citations in a reference listing, and online web images and other data. General acknowledgments and web citations are appropriate for use on either a web page or in a presentation. The more formal reference citation should be used in a journal article.


A general statement crediting PDS for data, assistance, and/or review should be included in a paragraph at the end of an article. For example:

The VG1/VG2-SR-ISS-4-PROFILES-V1.0 bundle set was obtained from the Planetary Data System (PDS).

Acknowledgment of a PDS Discipline Node should be given if the node actively assisted in obtaining or using the data. Examples:

Data and support were provided by the PDS Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node. See Eliason, Eric M., Susan K. LaVoie and Laurence A. Soderblom, The Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node for the Planetary Data System, Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 23-32, 1996.

Data and assistance were provided by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility. See Acton, Charles H., Jr., Ancillary data services of NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facilty, Planet. Space Sci., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp 65-70, 1996.

Reference citation

Reference information can be found in the <Reference_List> class in PDS4 XML labels. This class provides a list of internal (i.e., to other PDS4 products) and external citations relevant to the product. The internal reference provides the primary method for making associations between 'like' Products. The external reference provides a way to direct users to journals or articles related to the Product, or to documents not included in the archive because of copyright issues.

References can be listed with or without authors. Author in the case of PDS references generally refers to the investigator. Details vary among journals; authors should follow specific instructions from publishers. For example:

Murchie, S., Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars Limb Data Record, data set MRO-M-CRISM-6-LDR-V1.0, NASA Planetary Data System, 2010.

Gaskell, R.W., Gaskell Eros Shape Model V1.0. NEAR-A-MSI-5-EROSSHAPE-V1.0. NASA Planetary Data System, 2008.

Esposito, L. (et al.), Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph Jupiter Flyby Data, NASA Planetary Data System, CO-S-UVIS-2-WAV-V1.0, 2005.

For rules and more examples, see Chapter B.32 of Appendix B in the PDS Standards Reference.

PDS Web Citation

Citations for specific products can be included as URLs embedded in captions. For example:

New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager image of Jupiter, PDS Planetary Ring-Moon Systems Node archive.

Cassini Orbiter image Saturn rings, PDS Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node archive.

More general web citations can include text and an embedded link to the source site. For example:

Mars images were obtained from the PDS Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node.

Data were obtained from the PDS Geoscience Node and the PDS PPI Node.